2To paraphrase means to restate a portion of a text with the purpose, usually, of clarifying it. A paraphrase is about the same length (has about the same number of words) as the original passage. A paraphrase should not include the wording of the original passage, nor should it follow the same sentence structure as the original passage. Paraphrased information must be accompanied by a citation, or in-text reference to the source from which you took the information, just as quoted material must be. Failure to provide citation will be interpreted by others as plagiarism, even if you list the source in your bibliography.
3To summarize means to restate a portion of a text in a shortened form To summarize means to restate a portion of a text in a shortened form. A summary should bring out the main ideas of the passage, but it does not need to follow the same order as the original text. A summary should be clear, concise, and accurate in representing the original text. Like paraphrased information, summarized information must be accompanied by a citation, or in-text reference to the source from which you took the information, just as quoted material must be. Failure to provide citation will be interpreted by others as plagiarism, even if you list the source in your bibliography.
4To quote means to copy exactly a portion of a text, with the purpose of presenting the author's actual words. More information on quoting and citing sources will be made available at
5The next slide is examples. Carefully read paragraph 1On the paper provided paraphrase paragraph #1
6Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-fourths are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head. From "Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers," Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348.
7Read over this sample of correct paraphrasing. The use of a helmet is the key to reducing bicycling fatalities, which are due to head injuries 75% of the time. By cushioning the head upon impact, a helmet can reduce accidental injury by as much as 85%, saving the lives of hundreds of victims annually, half of whom are school children ("Bike Helmets" 348).How did you do ?Did you remember the citation ?
8Read over the paragraph . Paraphrase this paragraph. Practice # 2Read over the paragraph .Paraphrase this paragraph.The Legend of Jack-O'-LanternBy Wicke Chambers & Spring AsherThe Irish brought Jack-O'-Lantern to America. Jack was a legendary, stingy drunkard. He tricked the Devil into climbing an apple tree for a juicy apple and then quickly cut the sign of the cross into the tree trunk, preventing the Devil from coming down. Jack made the Devil swear that he wouldn't come after his soul in any way. The Devil promised. However, this did not prevent Jack from dying. When he arrived at the gates of heaven, he was turned away because he was a stingy, mean drunk. Desperate for a resting place, he went to the Devil. The Devil, true to his word, turned him away. "But where can I go?" pleaded Jack. "Back where you come from," spoke the Devil. The night was dark and the way was long, and the Devil tossed him a lighted coal from the fire of Hell. Jack, who was eating a turnip at the time, placed the coal inside and used it to light his way. Since that day, he has traveled the world over with his Jack-O'-Lantern in search of a place to rest. Irish children carved out turnips and potatoes to light the night on Halloween. When the Irish came to America in great numbers in the 1840s, they found that a pumpkin made an even better lantern, and so this "American" tradition came to be. (Hurda, D.J. (1983). Halloween. New York: Franklin Watts. )