Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 Sexual Coercion  Gender and Gender Differences.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: " Sexual Coercion  Gender and Gender Differences."— Presentation transcript:

1  Sexual Coercion  Gender and Gender Differences

2 Rape:  Nonconsensual oral, anal, or vaginal penetration, obtained by force, threat of bodily harm, victim can’t give consent.  In 2005:  Some 94,000 rapes were reported in the United States.  28 percent of college women experience rape.

3  Rape trauma syndrome - Emotional and physical effects a woman undergoes following a rape or attempted rape.  Post-traumatic stress disorder - Long-term psychological distress suffered by someone who has experienced a terrifying event.  Posttraumatic growth - Positive life changes and psychological development following exposure to trauma.

4 Date Rape:  One of the most common forms of rape.  57% of rapes involved a date.  Rohypnol (flunitrozepam) - “date-rape drug” Marital Rape:  The rape of a person by her or his spouse.  13% of married women. Marital Violence:  A man who batters his wife also is likely to rape her.

5 How to avoid date rape:  Set sexual limits.  Decide early if you would like to have intercourse.  Do not give mixed messages.  Be forceful and firm.  Do not do anything you do not want to just to avoid a scene or unpleasantness.  Be aware that alcohol and drugs are often related to date rape.  Trust your gut-level feelings.  Be careful when you invite someone into your home.  If avoidance does not work, self-defense strategies are needed.

6 Potential Causes of Rape:  Victim-Precipitated Rape - view that rape is a result of a woman “asking for it.”  Psychopathology of Rapist - Rape is committed by a psychologically disturbed man.  Power - Feminist theorists explore the complex links between sex and power.  Social Disorganization - rape rates increase when the social organization of a community is disrupted.

7 Causes:  Cultural values  Sexual scripts  Early family influences  Peer group  Characteristics of the situation  Miscommunication  Sex and power motives  Masculinity norms and men’s attitudes

8  Female Rapists –  1% of men report being raped by a woman.  Prison rape –  22% of male inmates and 7 percent of female.  Prisoners use rape to establish a dominance hierarchy. Child Sexual Abuse:  17% of women and 12% of men had sexual contact, as a child, with an adolescent or an adult.  Men are the primary sex abusers of children.  Incest - Sexual contact between relatives.


10  Pedophilia (child molesting) –  Sdult having sexual activity with a prepubescent child.  Tend to be repeat offenders.  Patterns of preference tend to be stable over time. Treatment:  Surgical castration  Antiandrogen drugs  Hormones  SSRIs - class of antidepressants; includes Prozac and Zoloft  Cognitive-behavioral therapy

11 Sexual Harassment:  25%-50% of women have been sexually harassed at work.  U.S. EEOC definition includes:  Unwelcome sexual advances  Requests for sexual favors  Other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

12 Types of work harassment:  Earnest - Desires sexual intimacy but won’t take no for an answer.  Hostile - Motivated to dominate woman he sees as competitive with him.  Paternalistic-ambivalent - Desires to be like a father.  Competitive-ambivalent - Mixes real sexual attraction with hostile desire to dominate.

13 Sexual Harassment in College:  Common in College – 50% of female students have been harassed by professors.  Illegal - Alexander v. Yale - sexual harassment of women in education possible violation of their civil rights.  Peers – 79% of boys and 83% f girls sexual harassment in U.S. high schools.

14  Gender role - Norms, or culturally defined expectations, that define how people of one gender ought to behave.  Stereotype - Generalization about a group of people that distinguishes them from others. Gender-role stereotypes vary among various ethnic groups of the United States.  African Americans:  Provider role is difficult for black men, because their unemployment rate (9.5 percent) is double that of white men (4.0 percent).

15  Latinos  Hispanic Americans are now the nation’s largest minority constituting 13% of the population.  Gender roles are sharply defined, as epitomized in the concepts of machismo and marianismo.

16  Asian Americans  Asian Americans make up 4% of the U.S. population.  Asian American women have a higher level of education than white American women.  Family needs take precedence over individual needs.  The Asian American woman has been stereotyped as an exotic sex toy, while the man has been stereotyped as asexual.

17 Gender Schema Theory:  Refers to the ways in which society conveys to the individual its norms or expectations for his or her behavior.  Parents, peers and the media are important socializing agents.  Males and females differ in:  Aggressiveness  Verbal and nonverbal communication styles  Self-disclosure

18 Measuring Arousal:  Men - penile strain gauge (peter meter)  Women - photoplethysmograph  Both measure vasocongestion in the genitals, which is the major physiological response during sexual arousal.

19  Men are more likely to have masturbated than women.  Men are more aroused by erotic materials.  Men are more approving of casual sex.  For undergraduate women, relationship and emotional connectedness are important prerequisites for sex.  Men more consistently have orgasms during sex.  Men desire more sexual partners and a greater frequency of intercourse.  Men think about sex more often and have more frequent and varied fantasies than women do.  Men have a stronger sex drive.

20  Transsexual  A person who believes he or she was born with the body of the other gender.  Gender Dysphoria  Unhappiness with one’s gender; another term for transsexualism.  Male-to-female transsexual  A person who is born with a male body but who has a female identity and wishes to become a female biologically in order to match her identity.  Female-to-male transsexual  Those with female bodies who think they are males.

21  Transgender includes transsexuals, as well as those who do not seek sex-reassignment surgery but prefer only some treatments such as hormones.  Transvestites  Drag queens and kings  Gender blender  Gender bender  Gender outlaw  Genderfree

22  Gender reassignment is complex and proceeds in several stages:  Counseling  Hormone therapy  Real-life experience  Surgery  Approximately two-thirds of those who have sex reassignment surgery show improvements in adjustment, such as reduction in depression.


24  No definite causes of transsexualism are known.  Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is found in children as young as 2 or 3 years old.  Insistence that she or he is the other gender.  Preference for cross-dressing.  Intense desire to participate in stereotypical play of the other gender.

25  Buccal smear  Test of genetic gender test, in which a small scraping of cells is taken from the inside of the mouth, stained, and examined under a microscope.

Download ppt " Sexual Coercion  Gender and Gender Differences."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google