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Module 15 - 16 Restructuring, Levels and Styles of Language.

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1 Module 15 - 16 Restructuring, Levels and Styles of Language

2 Restructuring Level of Language Style of Language

3 Restructuring is the changing of the form of a discourse without changing the content of the message; specifically, to transform the raw results of the transfer process into a stylistic form appropriate to the receptor language and to the intended receptors. To get the appropriate form one should take into consideration the levels and styles of the language.

4 Restructuring Penerjemah harus melihat secara terperinci apakah: 1.Terjemahan kita sudah sesuai dengan audience design dan needs analysis. 2.Terjemahan kita sudah sesuai dengan metode yang kita pilih

5 Levels of Language Within the basic structure of the language, there are always three fundamental levels: 1.The language of the specialists, e.g. the medicine man, the priest, the law man etc. which is called “technical language”. 2.The language of the common people in their daily activities, which is called “popular language”. 3.The language of the ordinary people, as opposed to an upper class or educated minority, which is called “vulgar language”. Although it is a universal phenomenon and known by all, it is not used in those circumstances in which it seems inappropriate.

6 Technical language and also literary language pertain to a definite field of specialization and are understood only by people specially trained. Because they are not understood by non- specialists, they have therefore an inappropriate impact intended for general readers, except in the passage, where their usage would be more in keeping with the content, for example, the use of such terms in the fields of medicine, science, politics, law, religion, etc.

7 Sometimes the press will use popular foreign terms or aphorisms and even leave them unexplained, e.g. “rule of law”, “joint venture”, “to be or not to be”, etc. These are all technical terms and they are restricted in use. As a general policy, the translator should produce as much as possible the popular forms of the language which are both understood and accepted by all who know Bahasa Indonesia.

8 As to the vulgar language, though it is a universal phenomenon and found in every language, it is nevertheless unacceptable for serious communication, and are therefore restrictive in use. Again, it is inappropriate to be used for general readers, except for the sake of special effects.

9 If, however, it is inevitable that one should use some technical terms, the terms should be described in the text by putting them between brackets, or explaining them in footnotes to be included on the page where the terms occur. In case of strong words, they should be euphemized to avoid negative connotations. When there are several choices of words in the range of popular language, one should choose the one that conforms best to the level of language intended, e.g. the word “to die” or “ to pass away” which has several Indonesian equivalents.

10 Styles of Language Style is the characteristic mode of writing. It is the style which gives to a text its uniqueness and which relates the text personally to its author.

11 In translating, one must recognize certain quite different styles and attempt to produce something which will be a satisfactory dynamic equivalent. Lyric poetry should be said like poetry and not like an essay; letters should read like letters and not like some technical treatise on theology.

12 Poetic language is used in poetry and song, in proverb, aphorisms, etc. Its main characteristics comprise: 1.Sound, as in rhyme, alliteration, assonance, rhythm, etc. 2.Lexical choices.

13 There are at least two levels of meaning in poetic language: 1.Literal meaning, i.e. what the language is about on the surface. If the literal meaning is a play upon another quite distinct, literal meaning, we have a pun, e.g.: A: You’re up so early. What woke you? B: The crack of dawn.

14 2.Figurative meaning, in which words are used out of their literal sense, or out of ordinary locutions. It may be that a poem has a highly individual second meaning which requires a key other than general cultural knowledge in order to understand.

15 Poetic language is used in poetry and song, in proverb, aphorisms, etc. Its main characteristics comprise: a. Sound, as in rhyme, alliteration, assonance, rhythm, etc. b. Lexical choices. Let’s take as an example a passage of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Scene II, lines 40 - 46: ‘Tis but thy name that is my enemy. Thou art thyself, thou not a Montague. what’s Montague ? It is nor hand, nor foot, Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. Oh, be some other name! what’s in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet.

16 The passage may be transferred and restructured as follows: Hanya namamu yang jadi musuhku. Dikau adalah dikau, bukan Montague. Apa itu Montague? Bukan kaki, bukan tangan, Bukan wajah, bukan lengan, bukan apapun milik seorang. O, jadilah lain nama ! Apakah hakekat nama, yang diberikan kepada sekuntum bunga mawar? Namakan apa saja’kan tetap harum baunya.

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