2 Learning Targets for Literature Key Ideas and Details Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. Craft and Structure Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone). Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment
3 Alliteration The repetition of sounds at the beginning of words Example: “Babbling, bumbling, baboons”
4 AssonanceRepeating internal vowel sounds in nearby words that do not end the same.Example: “All the night tide”
5 ConnotationAssociations and implications that go beyond the literal meaning of a word and the associations that people make with it.Example: The word “drugs” has a negative connotation, though some drugs can be useful to improve health.
6 ConsonanceA common type of near rhyme that consists of identical consonant sounds preceded by different vowel sounds.Example: My home is the same wherever I roam.
7 Denotation The dictionary meaning of a word. A word’s literal meaning. Example: Denotation – the dictionary definition of a word.
8 DictionA writer’s choice of words, phrases, and figurative language, which combine to help create meaning.Poetic diction: The way poets sometimes employ an elevated diction that deviates significantly from common speech and writing of their time.
9 Extended MetaphorA comparison of two unlike things without comparing words that continues throughout several lines of a work.
10 Figurative LanguageWays of using language that deviate from the literal, denotative meanings of words in order to suggest additional meanings or effects. Saying one thing in terms of something else.Examples: Metaphors, similes, personification, hyperbole
11 HyperboleA boldly exaggerated statement that adds emphasis without intending to be literally true.Example: He ate everything in the house.
12 ImageryA word, phrase, or figure of speech that addresses the senses, suggesting mental pictures of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, feelings or actions.Example: The green, lush, rolling hills smelled of lavender on the spring morning.
13 MetaphorA figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, without using words such as ‘like’ or ‘as’.Example: “Juliet is the sun.”
14 MeterA rhythmic pattern of stresses occurs in a poem. These are determined by type and number of feet in a line of verse.Types: Dimeter, Trimeter, Tetrameter, Pentameter, Hexameter, Heptameter, Octameter
15 Onomatopoeia A word that resembles the sound it denotes. Examples: Buzz, clang, click
16 PersonificationA form of metaphor in which human characteristics are attributed to nonhuman things.Example: The dancing trees swayed.
17 Refrain A phrase, line, or stanza repeated throughout a work. Example: In music, this is the chorus
18 RepetitionThe use of words or phrases that occur more than once in a work.Example: He is just perfect, perfect, perfect!
19 RhymeThe repetition of identical or similar concluding syllables in different words, most often at the ends of lines.Example: The cat wore a fancy hat.
20 RhythmA term used to refer to the recurrence of stressed and unstressed sounds in poetry.Types: Iamb, trochee, spondee, dactyl, anapest
21 SimileA common figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison between two unlike things using words such as ‘like’ or ‘as’Example: “Her hair fell like a cascade of brown waters.”
22 StanzaA group of usually four or more lines that mark specific intervals in a poem.Example: Poetry paragraphs
23 SymbolA person, object, image, word, or event that evokes a range of additional meaning beyond and usually more abstract than the literal meaning.Example: The flag represents freedom.
24 ToneThe author’s implicit attitude toward the reader or the people, places, and events in a work.
25 Theme The central meaning or dominant idea in a literary work. Topic + Vivid Verb + Tone = Theme statement
26 VoltaA turn in thought (typically in a sonnet) often marked by the words “but” “yet” or “and yet.”