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© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy Balance and Body Composition
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Energy is the capacity to do work. We need energy for : Basal Metabolism Basal Metabolic Rate- BMR: energy required for activity of the internal organs and maintaining of body temperature. Physical Activity Metabolizing of Food Energy
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Calorie: unit used to measure energy Kilocalorie is a unit of energy commonly used to express energy value of food. Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is a available through digestion. The energy value of food indicates its value to the body as fuel.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Kilocalories come from foods and beverages Bomb calorimeter used in laboratories to measure kilocalories in foods and beverages -Results must be adjusted for the physiological fuel values Nutrition analysis software or food composition tables can estimate energy in -Carbohydrate and Protein: 4 kcal/gram -Fat: 9 kcal/gram -Alcohol: 7 kcal/gram
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Energy Balance and Why Is It Important? Energy balance is achieved when the kilocalories consumed equal the kilocalories expended
The Concept of Energy Balance Figure 14.1
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Basal Metabolic Rate Keeping your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) as high as possible is vital when it comes to weight loss and maintaining healthy body fat levels
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Factors that Affect Basal Metabolic Rate Exercise: This is one of the biggest factors that influence BMR. BMR is higher in people who exercise regularly
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hormones: an increase in thyroid hormones increases BMR, decreased levels of the hormone lower BMR Body Temperature: Excessive heat or cold raise BMR
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gender: Males tend to have higher basal metabolism than females due to an abundance of hormones such as testosterone ad elevated levels of muscle mass compared to females Age: as we get older basal metabolic rate becomes increasingly slower.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Surface Area: Taller individuals have a higher BMR compared to shorter individuals. More surface area means more heat lost from the body, which causes the metabolism to speed up in order to maintain body temperature.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stress and Illness: increase in hormone activity due to physical or physiological stress increase BMR. Starvation: Fasting for more than 48 hrs. will lead to a decrease of 50% of Basal Metabolic Rate.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 6E09B15-F9FC A4E-7B6B079607DC 6E09B15-F9FC A4E-7B6B079607DC
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Composition? The ratio of fat tissue to lean body mass (muscle, bone, and organs) Usually expressed as percent body fat Important for measuring health risks associated with too much body fat
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Most Body Fat Is Stored in Adipose Tissue Two types of fat make up total body fat Essential fat -Found in bone marrow, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, muscles, and central nervous system -Women have 4 times more essential fat than men Stored fat -Found in adipose tissue -Subcutaneous fat – located under the skin -Visceral fat – stored around the organs in the abdominal area
Figure 14.6 Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat Storage in the Body
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Most Body Fat Is Stored in Adipose Tissue In negative energy balance, fatty acids are released from adipose cells Used as fuel and cells shrink In positive energy balance, fat accumulates and adipose cells expand Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is another type of fat tissue made up of specialized fat cells Contain more mitochondria and rich in blood Function is to generate heat Found primarily in infants
Figure 14.8 Distribution of Subcutaneous Body Fat
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Fat Distribution Affects Health Storing excess fat around the waist versus the hips and thighs increases risk of heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension Central obesity (android obesity) – from storing too much visceral fat in the abdomen Gynoid obesity – from excess fat around the thighs and buttocks Visceral fat releases fatty acids which travel to the liver causing insulin resistance, increased LDL, decreased HDL, and increased cholesterol
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 22DEFF3-904E-4488-BD2F-0B91917A7C33 22DEFF3-904E-4488-BD2F-0B91917A7C33
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body mass index is a useful indicator of healthy weight for most people Body mass index (BMI) calculates body weight in relation to height BMI = body weight (in kilograms) / height2 (in meters) BMI = body weight (in pounds) × 703 / height2 (in inches) How Do We Estimate a Healthy Body Weight?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Mass Index Healthy weightBMI 18.5–24.9 OverweightBMI 25–29.9 ObeseBMI ≥ 30 Obese individuals have a 50–100% higher risk of dying prematurely than those at a healthy weight
Figure 14.9 What’s Your BMI?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Mass Index BMI may not be accurate for everyone Is not a direct measure of percent body fat and doesn't assess if weight is predominantly muscle or fat Athletes and individuals with high muscle mass may have a BMI over 25, yet a low percentage of body fat Chronic weight loss in older adults signals loss of muscle mass and depletion of nutrients stores even though BMI may be within the healthy range Individuals less than 5 ft in height may have a high BMI, but not be unhealthy
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Waist Circumference Will Indicate Abdominal Fat Waist circumference – a quick indicator of health risk Greater than 35 inches in women and 40 inches in men is associated with increased health risk even if BMI is normal
Figure Using BMI and Waist Circumference to Determine Health Risks
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Health Risks Associated with Body Weight and Body Composition Being overweight increases health risks Overweight and obesity associated with increased risk of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidemia, gallstones, sleep apnea, and reproductive problems Increases risk of certain cancers including colon, breast, endometrial, and gallbladder cancer More than 80% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight Metabolic syndrome is associated with central obesity
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Health Risks Associated with Body Weight and Body Composition Being underweight also increases health risks Symptomatic of malnutrition, substance abuse, or disease Higher risk of anemia, osteoporosis and bone fractures, heart irregularities, and amenorrhea Correlated with depression and anxiety, inability to fight infection, trouble regulating body temperature, decreased muscle strength, and risk of premature death May be unintentional and due to malabsorption associated with diseases such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or celiac disease
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 8BA1E4D-790C BD-3344D592D745 8BA1E4D-790C BD-3344D592D745
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Putting It All Together Energy balance is the relationship between energy consumed as kilocalories and energy expended, and includes basal metabolism, physical activity, adaptive thermogenesis, and the thermic effect of food Energy expenditure can be measured through direct or indirect calorimetry or estimated with reference equations. Body composition describes the ratio of fat tissue to lean body mass; it is determined by hydrostatic weighing, air displacement, DEXA, bioelectrical impedance, or using skinfold calipers
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Putting It All Together Excess body fat and central obesity are associated with increased health risks including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and other chronic diseases Being underweight is also associated with health risks and increased risk of premature death
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14: Energy Balance and Body Composition.
ENERGY BALANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
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