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Chapter Eight - Part One Weight Control Food & Nutritional Health NUT SCI –242 Karen Lacey, MS, RD, CD © Spring 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Eight - Part One Weight Control Food & Nutritional Health NUT SCI –242 Karen Lacey, MS, RD, CD © Spring 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Eight - Part One Weight Control Food & Nutritional Health NUT SCI –242 Karen Lacey, MS, RD, CD © Spring 2005

2 Terms Overweight: 10% - 20% above the desirable weight for height, or a BMI of Underweight: 10% or more below the desirable weight for height, or a BMI of less than 18.5 Obesity: 20% or more above the desirable weight for height, or a BMI of 30 or greater

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4 Problems Associated with Underweight Due to decreased body fat stores, may be disadvantaged when energy reserves may be needed, such as during physiological stress, injury or famine Other problems include: – Menstrual irregularity – Infertility – Osteoporosis

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6 Problems Associated with Overweight High blood pressure High cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease Gallbladder disease

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8 I. What is a Healthful Weight? Body Weight vs. Body Fat Body weight and body fat are not the same thing Body composition is important

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10 B. Measuring Body Fat Difficult to measure Methods include: 1. Underwater weighing: the entire body is submerged into a tank of water and water displacement is measured to determine body density and body fat percentage

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12 Cont’d 2. Biochemical Impedence: estimate body fat content by measuring how quickly electrical current is conducted through the body – Fat increases resistance against electrical current

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14 Cont’d 3. Skinfold Test: thicknesses of folds of skin various places on the body are measured with an instrument called a caliper Simple & inexpensive

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16 C. Distribution of Fat Central obesity: excess fat on the abdomen and around the trunk Central obesity represents a greater risk to health than fat elsewhere on the body

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18 D. Weighing in for Health Health risk is dependent upon three factors: 1. Body weight 2. Amount & location of body fat 3. Current health status Waist circumference: a measure used to assess a person’s abdominal fat

19 Cont’d Body Mass Index (BMI): an index of a person’s weight in relation to height which correlates with total body fat content

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22 II. Energy Balance Fat stores= energy in – energy out 1. Energy in: – Calorie content of food taken in – 3,500 calories = 1 pound of body fat 2. Energy out: – Basal metabolism: the energy required to fuel the activities of the cells necessary to sustain life

23 Cont’d – Fuel for voluntary activities – Number of calories an activity uses is determined by: Muscle mass required Weight of body part being moved Duration of activity

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25 III. Causes of Obesity Genetic vs. Environment 1. Set-pt. Theory: the theory that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by adjusting hunger, appetite and food energy intake compared to metabolism so that a person’s effort to alter weight may be unsuccessful 2. Fat-cell Theory

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27 Cont’d 2. Heredity may contribute to obesity 3. Factors in surroundings encourage eating Availability, variety, appearance, lighting, music, location, companions 4. External cue theory: the theory that some people eat in response to such external factors as the presence of food or the time of day rather than to such internal factors as hunger

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29 B. Environment & Behavior 1. Hunger A physiological sensation A negative experience people eat to avoid 2. Appetite A physiological experience A positive experience- people eat for enjoyment

30 Cont’d 3. Satiety The condition of being full or satisfied A signal to stop eating 4. Other regulators: Human sensations Emotions Situations Arousal (ie, stress eating) 5. Underactivity

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