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Teaching About Oceans and Human Health Melissa Ryan, Project Manager Ocean Technology Foundation.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching About Oceans and Human Health Melissa Ryan, Project Manager Ocean Technology Foundation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching About Oceans and Human Health Melissa Ryan, Project Manager Ocean Technology Foundation

2 Linkages The Ocean … Provides benefits and risks to public health Provides benefits and risks to public health Drives our weather systems and influences climate change Drives our weather systems and influences climate change Can carry diseases such as cholera Can carry diseases such as cholera Is a source of oxygen, water, and nutritious foods Is a source of oxygen, water, and nutritious foods Provides a source of new medicines and natural products Provides a source of new medicines and natural products Has biomedical applications Has biomedical applications

3 1 in 10 1 in 10

4 Intro from the World Ocean Observatory (W2O)

5 Harmful Algal Blooms Algal blooms occur naturally and frequently Algal blooms occur naturally and frequently Not all are harmful Not all are harmful Fresh and salt water Fresh and salt water Can contaminate seafood and result in fish kills Can contaminate seafood and result in fish kills

6 Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, numbness of the arms, legs, and mouth, and sometimes the reversal of temperature sensation. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, numbness of the arms, legs, and mouth, and sometimes the reversal of temperature sensation. Rarely fatal, and gastrointestinal symptoms may last for a few days Rarely fatal, and gastrointestinal symptoms may last for a few days Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP)

7 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) Numbness of the lips and mouth, nausea and vomiting, giddiness, drowsiness, and fever Numbness of the lips and mouth, nausea and vomiting, giddiness, drowsiness, and fever WHOI

8 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) Vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhea, seizures, severe headaches, loss of memory, and difficulty breathing Vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhea, seizures, severe headaches, loss of memory, and difficulty breathing

9 Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) Diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain Diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain No outbreaks reported in U.S. waters No outbreaks reported in U.S. waters NOAA

10 Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, numbness of the arms, legs, and mouth Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, numbness of the arms, legs, and mouth Symptoms similar to CFP Symptoms similar to CFP “Red tide” “Red tide” David Patterson and Bob Andersen

11 Squid Has a huge axon (part of a nerve Has a huge axon (part of a nerve fiber) fiber) 1000x larger than in vertebrates 1000x larger than in vertebrates Nerve disorders Nerve disorders Marine Animals in Biomedical Modeling Marine Animals in Biomedical Modeling

12 Spiny Dogfish Vision and fluid formation in the eye Vision and fluid formation in the eye NOAA

13 Horseshoe Crab Test for impurities in some medical products Test for impurities in some medical products NOAA

14 Toadfish Inner ear almost identical to humans Inner ear almost identical to humans Balance disorders Balance disorders

15 Winter Flounder how kidney cells transfer toxins from the blood into the urine for excretion how kidney cells transfer toxins from the blood into the urine for excretion

16 Sea Urchins Cell Biology Cell Biology Lay an abundance of eggs Lay an abundance of eggs Cell division after fertilization Cell division after fertilization Applications to fetal alcohol syndrome Applications to fetal alcohol syndrome South Carolina Department of Natural Resources

17 Examples of Marine Species Used in Biomedical Research General Human Health Issue TaxonSpecies (Common Name)Human Medical Concern ImmunologyMolluscaConus spp. (cone snails)Blood disorders, clotting, hemophilia EchinodermataArbacia punctulata (sea urchin)Cell-mediated immune system responses TunicataBotryllus schlosseri (Golden Star Tunicate, sea squirt) Immune systems and disorders (self/non-self recognition), AIDS/HIV transmission Vertebrata, FishSqualus acanthias (spiny dogfish shark) Immune system function, evolution of antibodies, and disease resistance NeurobiologyMolluscaLoligo pealei (squid) Aplysia (marine snail) Neurological studies, behavior Nerve impulse transmission ArthropodaLimulus polyphemus (horseshoe crab) Vision Neural basis of behavior Vertebrata, FishOpsanus tau (toadfish)Balance and equilibrium, nausea Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish shark) Brain function Vision, glaucoma, cataracts Pomacentrus partitus (bicolor damselfish) Neurofibromatosis Electrophorus electricus (electric eel) Synaptic transmission (NA+ K+ ATPase)

18 And some more… Cell Biology/ Cancer MolluscaSpisula solidissma (surf clam) Cell division/cancer Loligo pealei (squid)Cell physiology, intracellular transport, and cellular pH calcium regulation EchinodermataArbacia punctulata (sea urchin) Cell division/cancer Fertilization and development ArthropodaCancer irroratus (red crab) Organic ion transport Vertebrata, Fish Pseudopleuronectes americanus (winter flounder) Organic ion transport

19 PhysiologyArthropodaEriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab) Cellular osmoregulation Cancer irroratus (red crab) Detoxification mechanisms Carcinus maenas (green shore crab) Kidney function Vertebrata, Fish Opsanus tau (toadfish)Insulin secretion and diabetes Muscle pathologies Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish shark) Cystic fibrosis Kidney and heart research Pseudopleuronectes americanus (winter flounder) Detoxification mechanisms Anguilla rostrata (American eel) Kidney function And still more …

20 Send in the Marines! From Virginia Commonwealth University’s “Secrets of the Sequence” website Image: NASA

21 Medicines from the Sea If a sponge is trying to prevent a coral from invading its space, it may produce a chemical to prevent the coral cells from growing and dividing Anti-tumor compounds Source: Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution HBOI

22 Deep-water sponge has anti-inflammatory compounds Arthritis, burns, allergic reactions, or inflammatory bowel disease Source: Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution

23 Challenges of Bioprospecting for Marine-Derived Drugs Technology, money, and regulations Technology, money, and regulations Organism collection bioactive chemical identified drug available Organism collection bioactive chemical identified drug available How long? How long? HBOI

24 Federal Initiatives NOAA and NIEHS/NSF U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy OHH Act 2004 OHH Act 2004 Source: 2008 Interagency OHH Research Implementation Plan

25 OHH Courses Clayton College of Natural Health, Birmingham, AL Clayton College of Natural Health, Birmingham, AL Elective: Oceans and Health Elective: Oceans and Health Ocean Technology Foundation and College of Exploration Ocean Technology Foundation and College of Exploration Two-week online course for teachers: Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 Two-week online course for teachers: Fall 2008 and Spring 2009course

26 Disciplines Involved in OHH Health Health Social Studies Social Studies Politics Politics Economics Economics Technology Technology Geography Geography

27 OHH Texts

28 OHH Publications

29 “HABs and Humans” Activity


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