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Midterm exam-to be returned on 9 March Essay 1000 words – includes references (Barre et al. 2007) given body of essay but not including reference citations.

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Presentation on theme: "Midterm exam-to be returned on 9 March Essay 1000 words – includes references (Barre et al. 2007) given body of essay but not including reference citations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Midterm exam-to be returned on 9 March Essay 1000 words – includes references (Barre et al. 2007) given body of essay but not including reference citations given at the end of the paper-also spelling counts as part of 5 marks for presentation section of marks Any other questions or concerns about the essay or self-assessment

2 AA displacement- on the final exam

3 Lecture 8a WATER MINERALS-I-THE MAJOR MINERALS 4 March 2015

4 Water Functions -carries nutrients and wasteproducts -maintains the structure of large molecules e.g. proteins and glycogen -participates in chemical reactions -serves as solvent for small nutrients -temperature-regulation -blood volume-regulation -water balance required for all functions Sources-foods, drinks, water Deficiencies- loss of above functions Toxicities-none-unless water balance failure

5 MINERALS-SOME GENERAL COMMENTS Single atoms Can be charged or uncharged in the body Major -are found in the body in excess of 5 grams -Electrolytes and minerals Minor- are found in the body in amounts of less than 5 grams

6 MINERALS- GENERAL COMMENTS CONTINUED Most essential - we cannot make them - some deficiencies have not been established for some minor minerals making it unclear whether they are needed in the diet

7 WHAT ARE THE MAJOR MINERALS? Electrolytes in part responsible for fluid balance in body sodium, potassium and chloride Non-electrolyte major minerals calcium, phosphorous, magnesium and sulphur

8 SODIUM FUNCTION-fluid and electrolyte balance, pH control, muscle function, nerve impulse transmission SOURCES-processed foods DEFICIENCIES- rare-except with diarrhea, vomiting and kidney disorders TOXICITIES – rare(kidney disposes of it)- edema and acute high blood pressure

9 POTASSIUM FUNCTION-fluid and electrolyte balance, pH control, muscle function, nerve impulse transmission SOURCES-fruits, vegetables, whole grains DEFICIENCIES- muscle weakness, paralysis TOXICITIES-supplements-muscle weakness, vomiting

10 CHLORIDE FUNCTION-fluid and electrolyte balance, part of stomach acid SOURCES-same as sodium DEFICIENCIES-same as sodium TOXICITIES-acute hypertension

11 CALCIUM FUNCTION-bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, nerve transmission, muscle function, blood pressure SOURCES –dairy, fortified orange juice, green leafy vegetables, small fish with bones DEFICIENCIES-children-impaired growth, adults-osteoporosis TOXICITIES-kidney stones, impaired iron absorption

12 PHOSPHOROUS FUNCTION-bone and teeth formation, pH control, regulation of coenzyme function SOURCES-all animal products, bread and ready to eat cereal DEFICIENCIES-rare- weakness and bone pain TOXICITIES- low blood calcium

13 MAGNESIUM FUNCTION- bone formation, nerve transmission, protein and carbohydrate metabolism (enzyme activity) SOURCES-green leafy vegetables, nuts, whole grains, seafood, chocolate DEFICIENCIES-weakness, confusion, growth failure in children TOXICITIES- rare- nausea, vomiting

14 SULPHUR FUNCTION-protein structure, component of biotin, thiamin and insulin SOURCES-all protein foods DEFICIENCIES-unknown TOXICITIES-unknown in humans

15 Major minerals in health and disease

16 Ingestion, digestion, absorption and transport, metabolism and excretion of major minerals part of story on connection of mineral supplementation to health

17 Major minerals- ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism and excretion continued INGESTION-oral, tube feeding, IV DIGESTION - none- minerals in = minerals out ABSORPTION- active transport

18 MAJOR MINERALS-IDATME TRANSPORT-FREE OR BOUND FREE- examples sodium and all other major minerals (except sulphur) BOUND- sodium chloride - potassium chloride - sulphur-insulin

19 MAJOR MINERALS-IDATME METABOLISM - minerals in = minerals out -minerals also participate as co-factors for enzymes EXCRETION – definitely in urine, faeces, sweat, - saliva is questionable

20 MAJOR MINERAL SUPPLEMENT REQUIRED IF: A)inadequate dietary supply of major minerals relative to need (prevention or slowing of disease) B) if in disease in general a monitoring of major minerals shows requirement.

21 FUNCTIONAL FOODS use of functional foods to supplement major minerals example of functional food- calcium-fortified orange juice

22 FUNCTIONAL FOODS only a few functional foods work in the prevention and slowing of disease

23 CYSTIC FIBROSIS sometimes low sodium due to sweating-supplement required for infants due to low sodium in formula, breast milk and some infant food

24 BURNS Fluid loss through skin -electrolytes -calcium, phosphorus and magnesium eating problem- may not feel like eating therefore need intravenous or tube feeding

25 OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION calcium buildup SOURCES calcium citrate calcium carbonate CAUTION- calcium phosphorus balance

26 OSTEOARTHRITIS calcium supplement -if not sufficient in diet to slow process

27 RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS calcium supplement if not sufficient calcium in diet to slow process

28 in advanced osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis get decreased calcium absorption

29 PREGNANCY additional 2000 calcium mg/day decreased blood pressure -better chance of successful pregnancy

30 DECREASING BLOOD PRESSURE -potassium, calcium and magnesium supplementation-each individually lower blood pressure lower blood pressure- lower risk of atherosclerosis

31 STROKE POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENTATION lower deaths due to stroke apparently not blood pressure related

32 POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE some kidney diseases- e.g. polycystic kidney disease- lose too much sodium giving a drop in blood pressure

33 Sulphur is off the books as a supplement- WHY?

34 WHATS NEW IN MAJOR MINERAL RESEARCH IN HEALTH AND DISEASE ? Drs. Whiting and Wood, Nutr. Rev.55:1-9 MAGNESIUM LOSSES a)Dietary calcium/magnesium milligram ratio of > 5 GET magnesium deficiency-lower magnesium absorption b) urinary magnesium up with 1000 milligram dietary supplement of calcium (Dr. Whiting)

35 WHATS NEW IN MAJOR MINERAL RESEARCH IN HEALTH AND DISEASE ? CONTINUED two ways of getting reduced body magnesium due to increased calcium intake 1) reduced absorption 2) increased urinary loss

36 WHAT IS NEW IN MAJOR MINERAL RESEARCH? 17 October new dietary sodium intakes raised to 2000 mg/day-this announced at the Vascular 2013 Conference in Montreal, Quebec https://www.hypertension.ca/images/TTTSession_ Workshop/PressRelease_Oct172013_EN.pdf


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