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Bacteria Presentation prepared by Alice F. Mullis March 2011

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1 Bacteria Presentation prepared by Alice F. Mullis March 2011
Edited by CTAE Resource Network

2 Fight BAC!® Guidelines Clean- Always wash hands, surfaces and any tools that my come in contact with your food. Separate- Don’t cross-contaminate by putting uncooked meets around food that will be eaten raw Cook- Make sure that cooked foods reach their proper cooking temperatures Chill- Don’t wait too long to refrigerate foods

3 High-risk food • meat • poultry • dairy products • eggs • smallgoods
Bacteria grow and multiply on some types of food more easily than on others. The types of foods which bacteria prefer include: • meat • poultry • dairy products • eggs • smallgoods • seafood • cooked rice • cooked pasta • prepared salads, coleslaws, and pasta salads • prepared fruit salads.

4 Bacteria Bacteria are microscopic organisms found everywhere
in the soil, air, water and body, etc. You can’t see, taste or smell most bacteria. Most bacteria are harmless and some are helpful like those that change milk into cheese. Some bacteria known as pathogens are harmful and can cause illness and sometimes death.

5 Bacillus cereus Symptoms: causes two different types of disease.
The first is known as the Diarrheal illness with abdominal cramps and diarrhea within hours after eating contaminated food. It may last for 24 hours. The second is called Emetic with nausea and vomiting within 3-6 hours of eating contaminated food. This illness also lasts about 24 hours or up to 48 hours. Common Name: B.cereus food poisoning

6 Bacillus cereus Foods Associated with B cereus:
Rice and other grain products, dairy products such as milk, cream, custards and dried milk. How to Prevent this Illness: Keep hot food hot (above 140ºF) and cold foods cold (below 40ºF)

7 B. cereus food poisoning
Bacillus cereus Common Name: B. cereus food poisoning

8 Campylobacter Symptoms:
Diarrhea, often with a fever, abdominal pain, nausea, headache and muscle pain. Illness can appear very similar to Salmonellosis. Onset: Illness can begin 2-5 days after eating contaminated food. Duration: Illness may last 7-10 days. Foods Associated with Campylobacter: Raw chicken and raw milk.

9 Campylobacter How to Prevent the Illness: Avoid cross-contamination of
ready-to-eat foods with raw meats or their juices. Cook meat and poultry thoroughly. Never drink unpasteurized milk.

10 Raw milk is milk that has
What is Raw Milk? Raw milk is milk that has not been pasteurized to kill harmful germs.

11 Microscopic fluorescent green
Microscopic fluorescent green Campylobacter cells on chicken skin.

12 Common Name: Campylobacteriosis
Chicken: Cow:

13 Clostridium botulinum
Symptoms: Symptoms include double vision, vertigo, inability to swallow, speech difficulty, and progressive respiratory paralysis. Onset: Symptoms may begin within 18 hrs to 2 days. Duration: More than 65% of cases are fatal. In non-fatal botulism poisoning, recovery may take weeks to years, depending on the severity of the poisoning.

14 Clostridium botulinum
Foods Associated with Clostridium botulinum: Improperly processed or damaged canned foods. Infant botulism may occur when infants eat honey containing C. botulinum spores. While extremely rare, a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the worst danger in canned foods. NEVER USE food from containers that show signs of “botulism”: leaking, bulging, rusting, or badly dented cans; cracked jars; jars with loose or bulging lids; canned food with a foul odor; or any container that spurts liquid when opening. DO NOT TASTE THIS FOOD! Even the tiniest amount of botulinum toxin can be deadly.

15 Clostridium botulinum
Illness Prevention: Follow proper techniques when home canning. Do not eat from swollen, leaking or severely damaged cans. Keep foods which are supposed to be refrigerated below 40ºF. Do not feed honey to infants under 1 year old.

16 How long should you keep canned foods?
High Acid Foods (tomatoes and fruit) = up to 18 months Low Acid Foods (meat and vegetables) = 2-5 years

17 Never store canned foods in places that are exposed to high or low
Never use foods if a container may contain Clostridium botulinum. These containers will show signs that include: Leaking Bulging Rusting Bad Dents Cracked Jars Loose or Bulging Lids on Jars Foul odor Container Spurts Liquid When Opened Never store canned foods in places that are exposed to high or low temperature extremes. These places include: Under the Sink Above the Stove In a Damp Garage or Basement

18 Clostridium botulinum
Common Name: Botulism

19 Escherichia coli Symptoms:
Severe cramping and diarrhea that can become bloody. Young children are especially susceptible and it can sometimes lead to other complications. Onset: Illness may occur anywhere between 1-10 days after eating contaminated food, but usually occurs between 3-4 days.

20 Escherichia coli Foods Associated with E. coli O157:H7:
Undercooked raw ground beef, unpasteurized apple cider, raw milk, and raw produce. Illness Prevention: Cook ground beef to an internal temperature of 160ºF Wash fresh fruits and vegetables thoroughly with running water. Do not drink unpasteurized milk or apple cider.

21 E. coli infection & E. coli O:157:H7
Escherichia coli Common Name: E. coli infection & E. coli O:157:H7

22 Listeria Symptoms: In healthy individuals this bacteria may result
in diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. In persons with a weaken immune system (the very young, elderly, pregnant women, those with AIDS or undergoing cancer treatment). Listeriosis may appear like a mild flu, but may develop into much more serious conditions. Onset: Illness may occur anywhere from 12 hrs to a few weeks after eating contaminated food. Duration: In otherwise healthy individuals, mild symptoms may disappear in a day or two, but those with weakened immune systems may need medical attention.

23 Listeria Foods Associated with Listeria Monocytogenes:
Raw milk, raw meats, and vegetables. Ice cream, soft-ripened cheese, smoked fish, lunch meats, hot dogs. This bacteria can grow, slowly, even at refrigerated temperatures. Illness Prevention: Wash fresh fruits and vegetables well with running water. Keep food in the refrigerator. Keep raw meats and raw veggies separate. Pregnant women, elder and immune-compromised (weakened immune systems) persons should avoid lunch meats and hotdogs.

24 Common Name: Listeriosis
Listeria Common Name: Listeriosis

25 Salmonella Symptoms: Fever, cramps, diarrhea, and sometimes vomiting.
Onset: Illness may begin anywhere between 7 hours to 3 days after eating contaminated food. Duration: Illness may last 2-3 days.

26 Salmonella Foods Associated with Salmonella:
Raw poultry products, eggs, pork, and processed meats. Salmonella has occasionally been found in raw fruits and vegetables. Illness Prevention: Avoid cross-contamination of ready-to-eat foods with raw meats or their juices. Thoroughly cook meat and poultry. Cook eggs well and never eat raw eggs. Always refrigerate processed meat products. Wash fruits and vegetables well with running water. Elderly and persons with weakened immune systems need to cook eggs well or use pasteurized eggs.

27 Salmonella

28 Common Name: Salmonellosis
Salmonella Common Name: Salmonellosis

29 Shigella Symptoms: Severe watery diarrhea, fever and cramping Onset:
Illness may begin between 12 hours and 2 days Duration: Illness may last 4-7 days.

30 Shigella Foods Associated with Shigella:
Salads, raw produce, milk and dairy products. Often caused from contaminated water and unsanitary handling of food. Illness Prevention: Wash fruits and vegetables well with running water. Wash hands well when preparing food.

31 Shigellosis or Bacillary dysentery
Shigella Common Name: Shigellosis or Bacillary dysentery

32 Staphylococcus aureus
Symptoms: Vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Onset: Illness may begin within 3-8 hours. Duration: Illness usually lasts about 2 days.

33 Staphylococcus aureus
Foods Associated with Staphylococcus: Staphlylococcus is associated with a wide range of foods and is commonly spread through the improper or unclean handling of food. Illness Prevention: Wash hands well before preparing food. Keep foods refrigerated.

34 Staphylococcus aureus

35 Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal food poisoning
Common Name: Staphylococcal food poisoning

36 Noroviruses Norovirus is the leading cause of
disease from contaminated foods in the United States. It is responsible for more illnesses than all other viruses, bacteria, and parasites combined. Of all foodborne disease outbreaks with a known cause in the United States, over half are caused by noroviruses.

37 Noroviruses Norovirus illness often begins suddenly. If infected,
you may feel very sick, with stomach cramping, vomiting, or diarrhea. Infections are usually not serious. Most people recover within 1 or 2 days with no long-term health effects. But severe illness is possible, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with other health conditions. For these people, norovirus illness can lead to hospitalization and even death.

Eating food or drinking liquids that are contaminated with noroviruses. Touching surfaces or objects contaminated with noroviruses and then putting your hand or fingers in your mouth. Having direct contact with another person who is infected with norovirus. (For example, when you care for someone with a norovirus or share foods or eating utensils with someone who is infected.)

39 Noroviruses Leafy greens (such as lettuce) and raw shellfish (such as oysters) are just two examples of foods most commonly involved in foodborne norovirus outbreaks. However, any food item that is served raw or handled after being cooked can become contaminated with noroviruses.

40 Noroviruses Noroviruses can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, closed places like: long- term care facilities daycare centers schools hotels cruise ships Noroviruses also can be a major cause of gastroenteritis in restaurants and at catered events if contaminated food is served.

41 Noroviruses

42 Prevent Foodborne Illness Click below to view video (turn on sound)
7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness Click below to view video (turn on sound) 1:54 minute video – “Start at the Grocery Store: Seven Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness”

43 Now let's have a little fun with bacteria.....

44 From Inside Cow Bellies Click below to view video (turn on sound)
A New Glue: From Inside Cow Bellies Click below to view video (turn on sound)

45 US Government Agencies that help protect our food supply.

46 Resources

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