2Why is Food Safety Important? No one likes to be sick.Food safety includes:• Proper food storage• Good hygiene• Prevention of cross-contamination• Cooking food to proper temperatures• Avoiding mistakes in food preparationNo one likes to be sick, especially when the cause of your illness comes from a favorite food that you ate. The best way to prevent getting sick from what you eat is to know about proper food safety. Storing food properly, practicing good hygiene, preventing cross-contamination, cooking food to proper temperatures, and avoiding mistakes in food preparation can help keep you healthy and reduce your risk of contracting a food-borne illness.
3Food Safety Terms Bacteria: Food-Borne Illness: Cross-Contamination: Tiny, one-celled microorganisms found everywhereFood-Borne Illness:Illness caused by eating contaminated foodCross-Contamination:Transfer of harmful bacteria from one source to anotherBacteria are tiny, one-celled microorganisms found everywhere in the environment. Bacteria are sometimes called microbes. Some microbes are safe and can be eaten in the form of food, like cheese and yogurt, but others are harmful and can cause food-borne illness. Food-borne illness is caused by eating food contaminated by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Cross-contamination occurs when harmful bacteria from one food source is transferred to another.
4Conditions for Bacterial Growth Remember: FAT TOM• Food• Acidity• Temperature• Time• Oxygen• MoistureThe acronym “FAT TOM” can help you remember the conditions needed in order for bacteria to grow. Food, acidity, temperature, time, oxygen, and moisture all influence the growth of bacteria.FATTOM
5F A T T O M Food Nutrients needed for bacterial growth Protein • Meat• Poultry• Eggs• Milk• FishCarbohydrates• Cooked rice• Beans• PotatoesBacteria need nutrients to grow and multiply rapidly, especially in protein, like meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and fish, and carbohydrate rich foods, like cooked rice, beans, and potatoes. These foods are considered potentially hazardous foods because they support the growth of harmful bacteria that cause food-borne illness.
6F A T T O M Acidity pH scale } MicroorganismsLike a pH between6.6 and 7.5pH scale• Bacteria Grow best in neutral or slightly acidic environment}Bacteria grow best in foods that have a neutral or slightly acidic pH. pH is the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance that is measured on a scale of 0 to A pH of 7.0 is considered neutral, while foods below that point are considered acidic and foods above that point are considered alkaline. Most microorganisms like a pH between 6.6 and 7.5.
7Temperature DANGER Zone FATTOMTemperature• Bacteria grow the fastest between °F• Freezing and refrigerating will stop or slow growth, but not killTemperature DANGER ZoneMicroorganisms like a warm temperature to grow. Bacteria rapidly multiply between 40 to 140° F. This is known as the DANGER ZONE. Freezing and refrigerating will stop or slow growth, but it will not kill bacteria. Warmer temperatures than 140° stop the growth of most microorganisms.
8F A T T O M Time Bacteria can double every 20 minutes • Don’t leave food out more than 2 hoursTime is another factor in the development of bacterial growth. With favorable conditions, bacteria can double every 20 minutes. Risky foods left at room temperature for 2 hours or more (or one hour if the temperature is 90° F or above) are unsafe to eat and should be discarded.
9OXYGEN F A T T O M Oxygen Aerobic = requires oxygen Anaerobic = no oxygenOXYGENSome bacteria need oxygen (aerobic) to grow, while other bacteria can grow without oxygen (anaerobic). Canned foods do not have oxygen available for aerobic microorganisms to grow. Some microorganisms can grow in anaerobic conditions, such as botulism.
10F A T T O M Moisture • Microorganisms love a moist environment • Dry foods safe to store at room temperature• Salt and sugar help preserveMost microorganisms need moisture to grow. We can control bacterial growth by controlling water available. Dry foods like crackers or cereal are safe to store at room temperature because they don’t have moisture to encourage bacterial growth.
115 Steps to Food Safety 1. Cook 2. Separate 3. Chill 4. Clean 5. Avoid To fight bacteria that cause food-borne illness, follow these five steps to food safety. Cook foods thoroughly. Keep foods separated and don’t cross-contaminate. Store food at the proper temperature in the refrigerator. Make sure you keep all surfaces, dishes, and utensils clean while preparing foods. Avoid foods that may put you at risk for contracting food-borne illness.
12Cook Cook foods to the right internal temperature: Ground Beef 160° F Meat145° FPoultry165° FEggsFishLeftoversCooking your foods to the proper internal temperature can greatly reduce your risk of getting sick from the foods you eat. Foods are properly cooked when they’re heated for a long enough time and at a high enough temperature to kill harmful bacteria. When reheating leftovers, bring to an internal temperature of 165° F and always boil sauces, soups, and gravies.
13Separate Combat Cross-Contamination • At the grocery store • In your refrigerator• While preparing foodSafely separate raw meat and seafood from other foods in your shopping cart and your refrigerator. If available in the meat department of the grocery store, put raw meat in plastic bags to prevent cross-contamination in your cart. Always wash your hands, cutting boards, dishes, and utensils after they come in contact with raw meat, poultry, eggs, and unwashed produce. Always place cooked food on a clean plate. Place raw foods in a sealed container or plastic bags to prevent meat juices from dripping on other food. Wipe up promptly meat juice spills from all surfaces.
14Chill Don’t Wait, Refrigerate! • Chill out! Set the correct temperature on these appliances:- Refrigerator: 40° F or lower- Freezer: 0° F or lower• Refrigerate prepared foods within 2 hours• Store perishables properly• Use a coolerCold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying. Set your refrigerator at 40° F or lower and the freezer at 0° F.Refrigerate prepared foods within 2 hours. If a food has been out of the refrigerator longer than two hours, always throw it out!Learn to store perishable foods properly. Don’t pack your refrigerator too full. Cold air must be able to circulate to keep food safe. Divide large amounts of leftovers into small, shallow containers for quick cooling. Marinate foods in the refrigerator, not on a counter. Always thaw foods in the refrigerator or in the microwave and never at room temperature.Use a cooler or ice pack to keep perishable food cold when you are traveling or spending time outdoors, especially on hot summer days. If you pack a lunch for school or work, use an insulated lunch bag and an ice pack if there is no refrigeration available.
15Clean Keep it clean! • Wash your hands before preparing or eating food • Wash produce under running water• Keep food preparation surfaces clean to prevent cross-contaminationWash hands with hot water and soap for at least 20 seconds before and after handling food and after using the bathroom, handling pets or changing diapers. Thoroughly scrub hands, wrists, and fingernails. Rinse and dry with a paper towel or clean hand towel. Using a dirty towel to dry your hands causes cross-contamination.Wash raw produce under running water. Use a small vegetable brush to remove surface dirt. Cut away any damaged or bruised area on produce because bacteria thrive in these places.Use paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces so germs can be thrown away. Wash cutting boards, counters, and all utensils with hot, soapy water after preparing each food item to avoid cross-contamination.
16Avoid Risky FoodsRisky foods are those that are most likely to produce a food-borne illness• Foods from an animal source- Raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish, non-pasteurized milk & shellfish• Raw fruits & vegetables produced in unsanitary conditions• Soft cheesesSome foods pose a greater risk of food-borne illness than others. Risky foods include foods from an animal source like raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish, unpasteurized milk, and shellfish, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and soft cheeses.
17Product Dates & Recommendations Sell-by date:Tells the retailer how long to keep a product out for saleUse-by date:Tells the consumer the date by which to use the productThe “sell-by” date tells the retailer how long to keep a product out for sale. It is recommended that the product be used within a few days of this date for maximum freshness (flavor, aroma, & appearance).The “use-by” date tells the consumer the final date by which to use the product. It is a recommended date for the product to be used for quality, flavor, aroma, and appearance. Product dates and recommendations are only reliable if food has been kept at a proper temperature during storing and handling.
18Who’s at Risk? • Anyone and everyone Especially dangerous for high-risk populations:- Very young- Elderly- Pregnant women- People with a compromised immune systemThere is no vaccine or pill you can take to prevent contracting a food-borne illness, so everyone is at risk. Those who are especially at risk are young children, elderly, pregnant women, and people with compromised immune systems.
19How Does Food-Borne Illness Occur? • Contaminated foods carry microorganisms into the body• Body’s defenses try to fight infection• Primary symptoms of most food-borne illnesses:- Nausea- Vomiting- Abdominal cramps- DiarrheaEating contaminated foods carry unwanted microorganisms into the body. Some of the microorganisms overcome the body’s natural defenses and cause a food-borne illness. General symptoms of a food-borne illness include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. If you think you or someone you know has contracted a food-borne illness, contact your health care provider.
20Campylobacter Cook me thoroughly! Illness: Campylobacteriosis Microorganism: Campylobacter jejuniFound in:• undercooked poultry• non-pasteurized milk• surface water• mountain streamsSymptoms: diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, headacheCampylobacter jejuni (CAMP-ee-lo-BAK-ter jay-JUNE-ee) is associated with undercooked poultry and contaminated water. Illness occurs when poultry is improperly cooked or cross-contaminates other foods.
21Salmonella Illness: Salmonellosis Microorganism: Salmonella Found in: • Raw meats• Poultry• Eggs• Non-pasteurized milkSymptoms: diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, vomitingSalmonella (SAL-ma-NEL-uh) is a bacteria commonly associated with poultry, eggs, dairy products, and beef or other products that come in contact with these animals or their waste. Illness can occur with a small amount of this bacteria, so it is important to cook foods to their proper temperatures and to make an effort to prevent cross-contamination.
22E. coli 0158:H7 Illness: E. coli Microorganism: Escherichia coli 0157:H7Found in:• Contaminated water• Raw milk• Raw or rare ground beef• Contaminated produceSymptoms: painful stomach cramps, bloody diarrhea, severe cases result in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)Escherichia coli (ess-chur-EE-kee-UH KO-LI) is commonly known as “E. coli.” Found most often in contaminated produce and undercooked ground beef, a person only needs to consume only a small amount of this type of bacteria to become ill. Cooking foods properly and preventing cross-contamination can help prevent illness.
23Norovirus Illness: Norovirus Gastroenteritis Microorganism: Norovirus Found in:• Contaminated water• Ready-to-eat food• Shellfish contaminated by sewageSymptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal crampsNoroviruses are often called “stomach flu” – which shouldn’t be confused with the flu, which is a respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. The virus is contagious and is typically transferred to food when touched with unwashed hands. The best way to prevent illness from the virus is proper hand washing, especially after using the bathroom.
24Listeria Illness: Listeriosis Microorganism: Listeria monocytogenes Found in:Soft cheeses • Deli salads • Cold smoked fishHot dogs • Deli meats • Raw milkSymptoms: fever, muscle aches, occasionally nausea or diarrhea.Pregnant women: spontaneous abortionNewborns: sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis(liss-TEER-ee-uh MON-o-SI-TAHJ-uh-neez) Listeria is commonly associated with ready-to-eat products such as deli meats, hot dogs or soft cheeses. This illness in uncommon in healthy people, but can be very serious to high-risk populations, especially pregnant women. The best way to prevent illness from Listeria is to throw out foods that have passed their use-by or expiration date.
25Botulism Illness: Botulism Microorganism: Clostridium botulinum Found in:• Home canned or improperly canned foods• Oil infusions• Baked potatoes wrapped in foil• Vacuum-packed and tightly wrapped foodSymptoms: nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, dry mouth, headache, double vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowingClostridium botulinum (klos-TRID-ee-um BOT-chew-line-um) is a bacteria that does not grow well in refrigerated or highly acidic food, but does grow without oxygen and can produce a deadly toxin when food is temperature abused. As a consumer, there are some clues that a food contains the toxin. Always inspect canned foods for bulges and dents, which could indicate presence of the toxin.
26Staph Illness: Staph infection Microorganism: Staphylococcus aureus Found in:• Deli meats• Salads including egg, tuna, chicken, and macaroni• Cream-filled pastriesSymptoms: nausea, vomiting and retching, abdominal crampsStaphylococcus aureus (STAF-uh-lo-KOK-us OR-ee-us) is spread through unwashed hands. Contaminated foods produce toxins that cause the illness when eaten. These foods include deli meats, tuna, chicken or macaroni salads, or cream-filled pastries. Cooking cannot destroy these toxins. Practicing good hygiene can prevent the transfer of bacteria to food and proper storage can minimize the growth of bacteria in food.
27You’re the ExpertYou have been hired as a restaurant critic for a local newspaper. You visit a restaurant and although you have no complaints on the taste of the food, you notice some disturbing food preparation methods. You find that food is left out on the counter for several hours, employees rarely wash their hands between handling different types of food, and utensils are not always properly washed between uses.
28Applying What You Know1. Create a food safety poster to be placed in a restaurant kitchen. Include pictures and descriptions of ways to ensure food safety using the “5 Steps to Food Safety.”2. Research a food-borne illness and write a 1-2 page report on your findings. Be sure to include causes of the illness, health effects, and prevention tips.
29Review Questions Choose the best answer for the following questions. 1. When should hands be washed?a. Before eating or cooking.b. After using the bathroom.c. After playing with a pet.d. All of the above2. This bacteria is found in deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses and can be especially dangerous for pregnant women.a. Salmonellab. Listeria monocytogenesc. Shigellad. Norovirus3. Bacteria multiplies quickly when it is kept between ___ and ___ degrees Fahrenheit.a. 30 and 60b and 150c. 40 and 140d and 2401. When should hands be washed?a. Before eating or cooking.b. After using the bathroom.c. After playing with a pet.d. All of the aboveAnswer: d. All of the above2. This bacteria is found in deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses and can be especially dangerous for pregnant women.a. Salmonellab. Listeria monocytogenesc. Shigellad. NorovirusAnswer: b. Listeria monocytogenes3. Bacteria multiplies quickly when it is kept between ___ and ___ degrees Fahrenheit.a. 30 and 60b and 150c. 40 and 140d and 240Answer: c. 40 and 140
30Review Questions4. Contaminated food ALWAYS looks, smells, and tastes bad.True or False5. It is safe to cut raw greens on a cutting board previously used for raw chicken if the board is rinsed off first.6. It is safe to eat a perishable food, like pizza, that has set out over 2 hours if it is thoroughly reheated.4. Contaminated food ALWAYS looks, smells, and tastes bad.Answer: FALSE5. It is safe to cut raw greens on a cutting board previously used for raw chicken if the board is rinsed off first.6. Is it safe to eat a perishable food, like pizza, that has set out over 2 hours if it is thoroughly reheated.
31Exploring the WebInvestigate the internet for more information on food safety.Check out these websites:US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection ServiceFood and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied NutritionAmerican Dietetic Association Home Food SafetyGateway to Government Food Safety InformationCenters for Disease Control and Prevention
32More on Food Safety From Learning ZoneXpress Food Safety Bingo GameJust the Facts Food Safety VideoKitchen Safety Smart VideoPlay It Safe Posters