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© Food – a fact of life 2009 Food poisoning Extension/Foundation
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Learning objectives To recognise the seriousness of food poisoning. To identify high risk foods To identify people at risk of food poisoning. To identify factors affecting food poisoning. To identify methods of shopping safely to prevent food poisoning. To recognise common bacteria involved in food poisoning.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Food poisoning There are thousands of cases of food poisoning each year, many of which are not reported or recorded in official statistics. Food poisoning may result from poor domestic food preparation, or poor food processing in industry. This may result in loss of business and peoples jobs if it is a serious outbreak.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Food poisoning Micro-organisms occur naturally in the environment, on cereals, vegetables, fruit, animals, people, water, soil and in the air. Most bacteria are harmless but a small number can cause illness. Food which is contaminated with food poisoning micro-organisms can look, taste and smell normal.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Food spoilage Changes in food, either through enzyme deterioration of food or micro-organism growth, will eventually lead to the food becoming inedible or unsafe if eaten. The rate of deterioration depends on a variety of factors which must be controlled carefully. Contaminants may be already present in the food, e.g. salmonella in chicken or transferred to the food by humans, flies, rodents and other pests.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 High risk foods Some foods are high-risk, as they provide the ideal conditions needed for micro-organisms to grow. These include: meat and meat products; milk and dairy products; fruit. If these foods become contaminated with food- poisoning micro-organisms and conditions allow them to multiply, the risk of food-poisoning increases.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 People at high risk Elderly people, babies and anyone who is ill or pregnant needs to be extra careful about the food they eat. For example, pregnant women or anyone with low resistance to infection should avoid high risk foods such as unpasteurised soft cheese.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Factors affecting food poisoning Some common factors leading to food poisoning include: preparation of food too far in advance; storage at ambient temperature; inadequate cooling; inadequate reheating; under cooking; inadequate thawing.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Factors affecting food poisoning More common factors leading to food poisoning include: consuming raw food; improper warm holding (i.e. holding hot food below 63ºC); infected food handlers; contaminated processed food; poor hygiene.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Symptoms of food poisoning Food poisoning can be mild or severe. The symptoms will be different depending on what type of bacteria is responsible. Common symptoms include: severe vomiting; diarrhoea; exhaustion; headache; fever; abdominal pain; tiredness.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Preventing food spoilage, contamination and poisoning Tips for buying food include: it is illegal to sell food that has passed its use by date; dented, blown or rusted cans of food should not be purchased; frozen food which has frozen together in the pack should not be purchased; do not buy food where the packaging has been damaged; only shop in clean and hygienic stores.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Preventing food spoilage, contamination and poisoning Tips for transporting food back home: buy chilled and frozen foods at the end of the shopping trip; keep frozen and chilled foods cold, by using cool boxes/bags and packing these types of foods together; cooked and uncooked foods should be kept separate; dry and moist foods should be packed separately; household chemicals should be packed separately.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Preventing food spoilage, contamination and poisoning Tips for storing food in the home: food should be unpacked as soon as possible; old stocks of food should be used before buying new ones (first in, first out theory); store food in the correct place, i.e. dry food, in cool, dry clean places and chilled food in the refrigerator.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Bacteria - Clostridium botulinum High risk foods Inadequately processed canned meat, vegetables and fish (faulty canning) Signs and symptoms Onset 24 – 72 hours. Voice change, double vision, drooping eyelids, severe constipation. Death within a week or a slow recovery over months.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Bacteria - Campylobacter High risk foods Meat and poultry. Signs and symptoms Onset 2 – 11 days. Fever, headache and dizziness for a few hours, followed by abdominal pain. This usually lasts 2 – 7 days and can recur over a number of weeks.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Bacteria - Clostridium perfringens High risk foods Raw meat, cooked meat dishes and poultry. Signs and symptoms Onset 8 – 22 hours. Abdominal pain, diarrhoea and nausea. This usually lasts 12 – 48 hours.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Bacteria - E Coli 0157 High risk foods Raw meat and dairy products. Signs and symptoms Diarrhoea, which may contain blood, can lead to kidney failure or death.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Bacteria - Salmonella High risk foods Raw meat, poultry and eggs, and raw unwashed vegetables. Signs and symptoms Onset 12 – 36 hours. Headache, general aching of limbs, abdominal pain and diarrhoea, vomiting and fever. This usually lasts 1 – 7 days, and rarely is fatal.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus High risk foods Meat, dairy products and poultry. Signs and symptoms Onset 1 – 6 hours. Severe vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness and lower than normal temperature. This usually lasts 6 – 24 hours.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Bacteria - Listeria Monocytogenes High risk foods Unpasteurised milk and dairy products, cook-chill foods, pate, meat, poultry and salad vegetables. Signs and symptoms Ranges from mild, flu-like illness to meningitis, septicaemia, pneumonia. During pregnancy may lead to miscarriage or birth of an infected baby.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Bacteria - Bacillus cereus High risk foods Rice, meat, seafood, salads, potatoes, and noodles. Signs and symptoms Ranges nausea and vomiting and abdominal cramps and has an incubation period of 1 to 6 hours. This usually lasts less than 24 hours after onset.
© Food – a fact of life 2009 Review of the learning objectives To recognise the seriousness of food poisoning. To identify high risk foods To identify people at risk of food poisoning. To identify factors affecting food poisoning. To identify methods of shopping safely to prevent food poisoning. To recognise common bacteria involved in food poisoning.
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