Presentation on theme: "1 Fallacies: Strategies used to intentionally mislead, misinform, or deceive."— Presentation transcript:
1 Fallacies: Strategies used to intentionally mislead, misinform, or deceive.
2 Faulty Analogy Definition Compare 2 things that are not really alike Faulty analogies are NOT similes, though they generally use “like” or “as.” Example Teaching teens about sex and birth control is like taking an alcoholic into a bar.
3 Ad Hominem “to the man” Definition Attack your opponent, not your opponent’s argument Clues Strong biased words that attack a person Example The editorial called the defendant “a criminal, a moral degenerate, a seducer of young women.”
4 Misuse of Humor Definition Funny at first but then deeply critical Example The joke about former President Clinton and his affair with Monica Lewinski: “Can’t we just impeach Clinton from the waist down?”
5 Quick Fix Definition Catchy phrase or empty slogan will solve a problem Clue slogans Example “When guns are outlawed, only outlaws will have guns.” (National Rifle Association)
6 Either/Or Definition Give only 2 choices in a fairly complex issue, one right and one wrong. Example “America: love it or leave it.” “Are you part of the problem or part of the solution?”
7 Ad Populum “to the people” Definition Appeal to emotions of the reader Clue Emotions replace facts Example Positive: use of words such as “America,” “liberty,” “freedom.” Negatives: “terrorists,” “insurgents” Positives in ads: babies, pets, families
8 Contrary to Fact Definition Something in the past might have happened and then today things would be different Clue “if” and “then” Example “If I’d gotten better grades in Jr High, I’d be getting better grades today.” “If he had not been drinking at the party, he’d be alive today.”
9 Snob Appeal Definition Use/believe this and you’ll be like the rich, famous, and beautiful. Clue Promises to make a desire come true Example Drink Mountain Dew and your life will be one big adventure.
10 Hasty Generalization Definition Base an argument on weak or insignificant evidence Example If we elect her, our taxes will surely go up.
11 Bandwagon Definition Everyone is doing it; everyone believes it. Example Popular teens wear _______.
12 Over-simplification Definition Give one simple cause to a complex effect Clue False cause- and-effect relationship. Example I failed the class because the teacher doesn’t like me.
13 Two Wrongs Make a Right Definition Argue that you are just doing what everyone else is doing, even if the action is wrong. Example Why did you stop me for speeding? I was going just as fast as everyone else on I 94!
14 Questions to ask as you begin looking for fallacies:
15 1. Is the purpose of the text to persuade? Yes= text may contain fallacies No= text probably does not contain fallacies
16 2. Is the information in the text true? Yes= text probably does not contain fallacies No= text may contain fallacies
17 3. Does the text contain facts to back up the generalizations? Yes= text probably does not contain fallacies No= text may contain fallacies
18 4. Is the language literal or figurative? Literal= text may contain fallacies Figurative= text probably does not contain fallacies