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Florida Partners in Crisis 2011 Annual Conference and Justice Institute Kim Spence-Cochran, Ph.D. Center for Autism & Related Disabilities University of.

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Presentation on theme: "Florida Partners in Crisis 2011 Annual Conference and Justice Institute Kim Spence-Cochran, Ph.D. Center for Autism & Related Disabilities University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Florida Partners in Crisis 2011 Annual Conference and Justice Institute Kim Spence-Cochran, Ph.D. Center for Autism & Related Disabilities University of Central Florida (CARD)

2 Problem solving, impulse restraint, understanding behavior of others Hearing, speech, language motor activities; planning; balance; muscles for speaking

3 Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus = Miror Neuron System (MNS) = social imitation; empathy Relay station; primitive functions for survival ( ex. breathing, heart rate) Higher mental functions; movement perception; behavioral reactions

4 Core Deficits of PDD: Communication Issues Social Skills Limited Interests

5 Communication Difficulties: Unable to provide ID or pertinent information Unable to provide ID or pertinent information Appear “guilty” Appear “guilty” May not respond to verbal commands May not respond to verbal commands May appear argumentative/non- compliant/stubborn May appear argumentative/non- compliant/stubborn Unable to answer questions in a timely fashion Unable to answer questions in a timely fashion Ask questions as a form of answering Ask questions as a form of answering Say things that are inappropriate or have no meaning Say things that are inappropriate or have no meaning

6 Communication Difficulty Interventions: Speak slowly and clearly Speak slowly and clearly Do not use slang, innuendo, idioms, or rhetorical questions Do not use slang, innuendo, idioms, or rhetorical questions Do not insist on eye contact Do not insist on eye contact Don’t rely on body cues or gesturing Don’t rely on body cues or gesturing Frame a clear expectation(s) Frame a clear expectation(s) Least Dangerous Assumption (LDA) Least Dangerous Assumption (LDA)

7 Core Social Skills Deficits: Lack of global understanding Lack of global understanding Difficulty with rules of engagement Difficulty with rules of engagement Lack of eye contact Lack of eye contact Lack of reciprocity Lack of reciprocity Personal space issues/poor boundaries Personal space issues/poor boundaries Inappropriate expression (verbal, gestures, etc.) Inappropriate expression (verbal, gestures, etc.) Sensory Issues Sensory Issues

8 Social Difficulty Interventions: Decrease visual or auditory or tactile stimulus Decrease visual or auditory or tactile stimulus Non-emotional response to inappropriate or socially awkward comments or statements Non-emotional response to inappropriate or socially awkward comments or statements Ask for the person to show or tell what they want/need Ask for the person to show or tell what they want/need Clear feedback regarding inappropriate behavior Clear feedback regarding inappropriate behavior Establish clear boundaries if needed – use proximity control Establish clear boundaries if needed – use proximity control Avoid touching if possible Avoid touching if possible Least Dangerous Assumption (LDA) Least Dangerous Assumption (LDA)

9 Limited Interests Deficits: Limited Interests Deficits: Handle items in a manner that appears suspicious Handle items in a manner that appears suspicious Unusual movements that appear suspicious (rocking, finger flapping, twirling items, etc.) Unusual movements that appear suspicious (rocking, finger flapping, twirling items, etc.) Perseveration on routine, topic, or an item(s) Perseveration on routine, topic, or an item(s) Behavior that resembles a person who is chemically altered Behavior that resembles a person who is chemically altered Attachment to unusual items Attachment to unusual items

10 Limited Interest Difficulty Interventions: Attempt to ascertain item or topic Attempt to ascertain item or topic Remember – topics of interest may be disturbing and/or unusual try not to respond to the item or topic Remember – topics of interest may be disturbing and/or unusual try not to respond to the item or topic If possible – do not remove the item or discourage vocalizations about the item or topic If possible – do not remove the item or discourage vocalizations about the item or topic De-rail – if possible – try to re- direct with an alternate object or item De-rail – if possible – try to re- direct with an alternate object or item Utilize proximity control Utilize proximity control Use restraint as a last resort Use restraint as a last resort Least Dangerous Assumption (LDA) Least Dangerous Assumption (LDA)

11 Mental Retardation Awareness Training Kim Spence-Cochran, Ph.D. Center For Autism and Related Disabilities University of Central Florida

12 What is an Intellectual Disability? Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior. This disability originates before age 18. Individuals with ID have global problems with conceptual, social, and practical skills application and understanding. (2009 American Association on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities)

13 Mental Capability = Reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly, learning from experience, etc. Mental Capability = Reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly, learning from experience, etc. Standardized Tests to determine Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Standardized Tests to determine Intelligence Quotient (IQ) By definition people with ID have an average IQ that is at least 2 standard deviations below the mean By definition people with ID have an average IQ that is at least 2 standard deviations below the mean Intellectual Functioning

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15 Skills (3 subsets of specific skills) measured by standardized Tests Skills (3 subsets of specific skills) measured by standardized Tests Collection of three skill types: conceptual, social, and practical skills Collection of three skill types: conceptual, social, and practical skills –Conceptual Skills = receptive & expressive language and reading & writing –Social Skills = interpersonal skills, gullibility, following rules –Practical Skills = eating, dressing, mobility, taking medication, occupational skills Adaptive Behavior

16  Developmental Disabilities (DD)are defined as chronic disabilities that can be cognitive or physical or both – these disabilities must appear before age 22  Intellectual disability (ID) forms a subset within the larger universe of developmental disabilities (DD) – these boundaries are often blurred  ID disabilities encompass the “cognitive” part of a person’s disability Intellectual Disability versus Developmental Disability

17 Caused by DD, syndromes, genetic issues, health problems, social factors, educational factors, & environmental factors – over 200 documented causes Caused by DD, syndromes, genetic issues, health problems, social factors, educational factors, & environmental factors – over 200 documented causes Over 7.5 million Americans have some form of intellectual disability (roughly 3% of the population) Over 7.5 million Americans have some form of intellectual disability (roughly 3% of the population) 1 in 10 families are affected 1 in 10 families are affected Comprises one of the largest disability groups Comprises one of the largest disability groups Can not be cured Can not be cured ID is not a mental illness ID is not a mental illness ID is not a disease ID is not a disease Etiology of Intellectual Disability

18 Language or behavior may be delayed or immature Language or behavior may be delayed or immature Physical abilities may be delayed or immature Physical abilities may be delayed or immature Difficulty following oral directions Difficulty following oral directions Difficulty understanding the environment (big picture) Difficulty understanding the environment (big picture) Characteristics of Intellectual Disabilities

19 Social abilities may be delayed or immature Social abilities may be delayed or immature Difficulty with “relatedness” Difficulty with “relatedness” Overall “slowness” Overall “slowness” Physical characteristics including stunted growth, odd-shaped head and/or hands, feet, or stature Physical characteristics including stunted growth, odd-shaped head and/or hands, feet, or stature Characteristics of Intellectual Disabilities

20 Say what they think others want to hear Say what they think others want to hear Have difficulty describing facts for details (recall) Have difficulty describing facts for details (recall) Not want disability noticed Not want disability noticed VERY susceptible to coercion VERY susceptible to coercion Confusion about who is responsible for actions Confusion about who is responsible for actions May easily confess, even though innocent May easily confess, even though innocent Inappropriate smiling or non-verbal cues that resemble a lack of remorse Inappropriate smiling or non-verbal cues that resemble a lack of remorse Implications for Law Enforcement:

21 Speak directly to the person Speak directly to the person Keep sentences short Keep sentences short Use simple language Use simple language Refrain from the use of slang or idioms Refrain from the use of slang or idioms Use concrete terms Use concrete terms Break steps into small pieces Break steps into small pieces Use pictures when possible (visual supports) Use pictures when possible (visual supports) Strategies for First Responders:

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24 Thanks for Attending! Kim Spence-Cochran, Ph.D. P.O. Box Orlando, FL Office: Toll-free: Cell:


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