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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Rhonda Landwehr PESS 369-Adapted Aquatics 6/20/2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Rhonda Landwehr PESS 369-Adapted Aquatics 6/20/2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Rhonda Landwehr PESS 369-Adapted Aquatics 6/20/2006

2 General Information Prevalence: –New case occurs approx. every 21 minutes. (Cure Autism Now) –Estimated 1 of every 166 births. (Cure Autism Now) –Affects 4x’s more males than females. Common Characteristics: –Difficulties with social interactions –Problems with communication (verbal & nonverbal) –Repetitive behaviors or obsessive interests

3 General Information Cont. Other problems that may accompany ASD: –Sensory problems, mental retardation, seizures –Onset usually before age of 3 Other syndromes associated with ASD –Fragile X, Williams, Tuberous Sclerosis No affect on normal life expectancy

4 Common Types Autistic Disorder (aka Classical Autism) –Characteristics Significant delays in language Delays in cognitive development Delays in development of age-appropriate self- help skills Lack of curiosity about the environment Poor social skills Repetitive motor behavior (twisting, rocking, etc.) –Onset Prior to age 3

5 Common Types Cont. Asperger’s Disorder (aka High Functioning Autism) –More prevalent in males –Diagnosed between ages 5 and 9 years –Characteristics: Conversation revolves around self Obsessed with complex topics (weather, music, numbers, etc.) Normal verbal ability Exceptional rote memory skills Difficulty with nonverbal communication

6 Other Types Rett’s Disorder –Extremely rare –Only affects females –Normal development then, severe degeneration of body functions between 6 and 18 months –Characteristics: social withdrawal, regressed language skills, and hand wringing

7 Other Types Cont. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) –Affects more males –Normal development until 3 or 4 years, then progressive degeneration of bodily functions. PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) –Does not fit into a categories

8 Diagnosis There are no neurological, chromosomal, or blood test Use checklists and questionnaires to diagnose or rule out autism

9 Causes Uncertain at this time, but scientist think environment & genetics both play a role Study Suggestions: –Irregularities in several regions of the brain –Abnormal levels of serotonin & other neurotransmitters –Defect in genes that control brain growth

10 Signs & Symptoms Children do not always experience the same symptoms. The symptoms depend on the severity of the disorder. Early signs of autism are: –Loss or lack of speech by 18 months. –Little or no eye contact. –Little or no eye contact. –Loss or lack of gestures, such as pointing or waving. –Repetitive speech or actions. –Unusual reactions to the way things look, feel, smell, taste or sound. (Cure Autism Now Foundation)

11 Treatments NO CURE Early Intervention –Applied Behavior Analysis has been widely accepted Reduces inappropriate behavior and in increases communication, learning, and appropriate social behavior. (NIMH website) Medications to treat behavior problems Dietary Interventions

12 Aquatic Teaching Techniques Assistive Technology –Pictographs, Whiteboard, etc. Remove distractions –May be sensitive to lights, noises, touch, etc. Use simple terms when instructing 1-on-1 instruction Use gradual transitions between skills Use reinforcement

13 Aquatic Techniques Cont. Use the swimmer's name Always pair the same demonstration with the same cue Have a "home base" in every setting Each lesson should begin and end with the same greeting, using the swimmer's name, and expecting a response. Each phase of the program should be introduced the same way. Show the symbol/task card and give the activity the same name every day. Use equipment of the same type, color, and texture to work on the same skills. (Texas Women’s University website) ROUTINE, ROUTINE, ROUTINE

14 General Teaching Techniques Same as Aquatic Techniques Monitor activities because may not know they are injured Function best at individual activities Use stations

15 Eliminating Inappropriate Behavior (Texas Women’s University website) Redirect their attention Simplify the task Reduce the stimulation

16 Misc. Facts 1 in 250 births 1 to 1.5 million Americans Fastest-growing developmental disability 10 - 17 % annual growth Growth comparison during the 1990s: –U.S. population increase: 13% –Disabilities increase: 16% –Autism increase: 172% $90 billion annual cost 90% of costs are in adult services Cost of lifelong care can be reduced by 2/3 with early diagnosis and intervention In 10 years, the annual cost will be $200-400 billion

17 References Autism Society of America order order Cure Autism Now Foundation Qs_About_Autism.htm Qs_About_Autism.htm Qs_About_Autism.htm Kids Health (Nemours Foundation) National Institute of Mental Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stoke Texas Women’s University-Adapted Aquatics Program Power Points from PESS 312

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