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Assessment of Mental Retardation & Giftedness: Two End of the Normal Curve Lecture 12/1/04.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment of Mental Retardation & Giftedness: Two End of the Normal Curve Lecture 12/1/04."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment of Mental Retardation & Giftedness: Two End of the Normal Curve
Lecture 12/1/04

2 American Association of Mental Retardation (2002)
Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18. Adaptive behavior: Conceptual: language, reading/writing, money Social Skills: interpersonal, responsibility, self-esteem Practical Skills: personal activities of daily living

3 Five Assumptions of AAMR Definition
Limitations must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age peers and culture. Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in sensory, motor, and behavioral factors. Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strengths.

4 Five Assumptions of AAMR Definition (cont.)
An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports. With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with mental retardation generally will improve.

5 DSM IV – TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)
Similar definition as AAMR but defines sub-average intellectual functioning as an IQ at least two standard deviations below the mean on an individually administered IQ test. The level of MR described by an IQ test depends on the standard deviation of the test. For an IQ test with a SD of 15, a score below 70 is considered MR.

6 DSM IV – TR (cont.) 4 degrees of severity (SD of 15)
Mild (IQ 55 to 69) Moderate (IQ 40 to 54) Severe (IQ 25 to 40) Profound (IQ below 25) Usefulness of including these levels includes: Discussing results with parents, teachers, and HCP Formulation of interventions Estimating future potential Research and data analysis

7 Etiology of Mental Retardation
Heredity (fragile X, Williams syndrome, ? autism) Early alterations of embryonic development (Down syndrome) Pregnancy and perinatal problems (FAS, hypoxia) General medical conditions acquired in infancy or childhood (meningitis, lead poisoning) Environmental influences (neglect and deprivation) Two broad categories: Familial origin – people in the lower portion of the normal distribution of intelligence, with their lower IQ a reflection of normal intellectual variability. Typically IQ ranges from Can be a combined effect of below-average heredity and a markedly below-average environment. This type of MR is typically found in low SES families and siblings are also likely to have low IQ. Brain Injury: primarily below 50 (but some organic etiologies can produce higher IQs). This type of MR occurs in all SES levels and siblings are likely to be unaffected (DS, CP, meningitis).

8 Descriptive Statistics
1% of the general population would be classified as mentally retarded Of the people with mental retardation: 85% are in the mild classification 10% are in the moderate classification 3 to 4% are in the severe classification 1 to 2% are in the profound classification

9 Characteristics A slow rate of cognitive development
Limited expressive and receptive language abilities Limited adaptive skills Limited experiential background Short attention span Distractibility A concrete and literal response style Potentially, a higher rate of acquiescence

10 IQ and Adaptive Behavior
True relation unknown Estimated relationship between .30 and .40 Research suggests that approx. 1/3 of children with IQs below –2SD do not have adaptive behavior scores within the mentally retarded range The number of people classified as MR is likely to be lower when both criteria are used. This level decreases with decreasing correlation between IQ and MR.

11 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA ’97)
IDEA was created in 1990 as an update to the 1975 PL , the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. IDEA provides for services from children between the ages of 0-21 years. Principles of IDEA: Children with disabilities must receive a free and appropriate education (FAPE) that provides special education and related services. Each child being considered for services must receive a full, individualized, appropriate evaluation.

12 IDEA Principles (cont.)
Eligible children must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP). Children with disabilities should be educated with children who are not disabled in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). Informed written consent from parents must be obtained before evaluating a child. Parents must be given the opportunity to participate in eligibility, placement, and IEP meetings. Full continuum of services:

13 IEP Team Parents General Education Teacher Special Education Teacher
School representative who is qualified to provide or supervise special education and is knowledgeable about resources. An individual who can interpret instructional implications. Other agency representatives Child, if appropriate

14 Disability Categories in IDEA ’97 (every state has own definitions)
Autism Deaf-blindness Deafness Emotional Disturbance Hearing Impairment Mental Retardation Multiple Disabilities Orthopedic Impairment Other Health Impaired Specific Learning Disability Speech or Language Impairment Traumatic Brain Injury Visual Development Developmental Delays (3-9 years) Notice that ODD/Conduct Disorder is not on the list! Ed applies to schizophrenia but does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted unless they have an ED – depression, anxiety, etc. Discuss notion of developmental delay for children 3-9 years (example of 4 year old girl in PDD Clinic)

15 Giftedness (Sattler’s General Definition)
Children are referred to as “gifted” if: Obtained FSIQ above 130 (98% ile) Demonstrated excellence in art or music High scores on tests of creativity Areas of excellence: General intellectual ability Specific academic aptitude Creative or productive thinking Leadership ability Ability in the visual and performing arts Unlike MR, there is no generally agreed on definition or way to measure giftedness. Also, Robinson, Zigler, and Gallagher point out that giftedness is part of the normal distribution of IQ, including children who are more than 2 standard deviations above average. This range in giftedness is different than range in MR where organic causes usually explain moderate/severe/profound MR.

16 Measuring Giftedness Giftedness is not only measured by an individually administered IQ score greater than 130. Review of gifted criteria in Alabama.

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