Presentation on theme: "Assessment of Mental Retardation & Giftedness: Two End of the Normal Curve Lecture 12/1/04."— Presentation transcript:
1 Assessment of Mental Retardation & Giftedness: Two End of the Normal Curve Lecture 12/1/04
2 American Association of Mental Retardation (2002) Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18.Adaptive behavior:Conceptual: language, reading/writing, moneySocial Skills: interpersonal, responsibility, self-esteemPractical Skills: personal activities of daily living
3 Five Assumptions of AAMR Definition Limitations must be considered within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age peers and culture.Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in sensory, motor, and behavioral factors.Within an individual, limitations often coexist with strengths.
4 Five Assumptions of AAMR Definition (cont.) An important purpose of describing limitations is to develop a profile of needed supports.With appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period, the life functioning of the person with mental retardation generally will improve.
5 DSM IV – TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Similar definition as AAMR but defines sub-average intellectual functioning as an IQ at least two standard deviations below the mean on an individually administered IQ test.The level of MR described by an IQ test depends on the standard deviation of the test. For an IQ test with a SD of 15, a score below 70 is considered MR.
6 DSM IV – TR (cont.) 4 degrees of severity (SD of 15) Mild (IQ 55 to 69)Moderate (IQ 40 to 54)Severe (IQ 25 to 40)Profound (IQ below 25)Usefulness of including these levels includes:Discussing results with parents, teachers, and HCPFormulation of interventionsEstimating future potentialResearch and data analysis
7 Etiology of Mental Retardation Heredity (fragile X, Williams syndrome, ? autism)Early alterations of embryonic development (Down syndrome)Pregnancy and perinatal problems (FAS, hypoxia)General medical conditions acquired in infancy or childhood (meningitis, lead poisoning)Environmental influences (neglect and deprivation)Two broad categories:Familial origin – people in the lower portion of the normal distribution of intelligence, with their lower IQ a reflection of normal intellectual variability. Typically IQ ranges from Can be a combined effect of below-average heredity and a markedly below-average environment. This type of MR is typically found in low SES families and siblings are also likely to have low IQ.Brain Injury: primarily below 50 (but some organic etiologies can produce higher IQs). This type of MR occurs in all SES levels and siblings are likely to be unaffected (DS, CP, meningitis).
8 Descriptive Statistics 1% of the general population would be classified as mentally retardedOf the people with mental retardation:85% are in the mild classification10% are in the moderate classification3 to 4% are in the severe classification1 to 2% are in the profound classification
9 Characteristics A slow rate of cognitive development Limited expressive and receptive language abilitiesLimited adaptive skillsLimited experiential backgroundShort attention spanDistractibilityA concrete and literal response stylePotentially, a higher rate of acquiescence
10 IQ and Adaptive Behavior True relation unknownEstimated relationship between .30 and .40Research suggests that approx. 1/3 of children with IQs below –2SD do not have adaptive behavior scores within the mentally retarded rangeThe number of people classified as MR is likely to be lower when both criteria are used. This level decreases with decreasing correlation between IQ and MR.
11 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA ’97) IDEA was created in 1990 as an update to the 1975 PL , the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.IDEA provides for services from children between the ages of 0-21 years.Principles of IDEA:Children with disabilities must receive a free and appropriate education (FAPE) that provides special education and related services.Each child being considered for services must receive a full, individualized, appropriate evaluation.
12 IDEA Principles (cont.) Eligible children must have an Individualized Education Program (IEP).Children with disabilities should be educated with children who are not disabled in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE).Informed written consent from parents must be obtained before evaluating a child.Parents must be given the opportunity to participate in eligibility, placement, and IEP meetings.Full continuum of services:
13 IEP Team Parents General Education Teacher Special Education Teacher School representative who is qualified to provide or supervise special education and is knowledgeable about resources.An individual who can interpret instructional implications.Other agency representativesChild, if appropriate
14 Disability Categories in IDEA ’97 (every state has own definitions) AutismDeaf-blindnessDeafnessEmotional DisturbanceHearing ImpairmentMental RetardationMultiple DisabilitiesOrthopedic ImpairmentOther Health ImpairedSpecific Learning DisabilitySpeech or Language ImpairmentTraumatic Brain InjuryVisual DevelopmentDevelopmental Delays (3-9 years)Notice that ODD/Conduct Disorder is not on the list! Ed applies to schizophrenia but does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted unless they have an ED – depression, anxiety, etc.Discuss notion of developmental delay for children 3-9 years (example of 4 year old girl in PDD Clinic)
15 Giftedness (Sattler’s General Definition) Children are referred to as “gifted” if:Obtained FSIQ above 130 (98% ile)Demonstrated excellence in art or musicHigh scores on tests of creativityAreas of excellence:General intellectual abilitySpecific academic aptitudeCreative or productive thinkingLeadership abilityAbility in the visual and performing artsUnlike MR, there is no generally agreed on definition or way to measure giftedness. Also, Robinson, Zigler, and Gallagher point out that giftedness is part of the normal distribution of IQ, including children who are more than 2 standard deviations above average. This range in giftedness is different than range in MR where organic causes usually explain moderate/severe/profound MR.
16 Measuring GiftednessGiftedness is not only measured by an individually administered IQ score greater than 130.Review of gifted criteria in Alabama.