Signs of Pregnancy Missed menstrual period Excessive tenderness in her breasts Fatigue Change in appetite Morning Sickness May have spotting or light, irregular menstrual flow
Am I Pregnant? Urine Test: This is a quick simple test that test for the hormone HCG within the females urine. HCG is released by a women when the egg attaches to the lining of the Uterus. HCG is only released when a female is pregnant. (EPT = Early Pregnancy Test) Blood Test: This test also detects HCG, but you must go to a doctor and have blood drawn. Most people get the blood test after they tested positive for the urine test.
MEDICAL SPECIALIST OBSTETRICIAN: DOCTOR WHO SPECIALIZES IN CARE OF A PREGNANT WOMEN AND THE DEVELOPING FETUS GYNECOLOGIST: DOCTOR WHO SPECIALIZES IN CARE OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
PREGNANCY TERM Pregnancy is based on 40 weeks of development. 10 months in total. 1 st month we DO NOT count due to the fact of not knowing Broken down into three sections called trimesters
Define Uterus Is a muscular organ that receives and supports the fertilized ovum during pregnancy and contracts during childbirth to help with delivery.
FERTILIZATION What is Fertilization? Is joining of an egg cell and a sperm cell. Where does fertilization occur? Fallopian tube The process begins when an egg is released from one of the woman’s ovaries and enters the fallopian tube. The egg remains in the fallopian tube for 12-24 hrs. in order for fertilization to take place.
Define Ovum Also know as the egg cell The egg cell; If fertilization occurs the egg will become an embryo.
Define Zygote: The cell produced when a sperm fertilizes an egg; contains genetic material that forms the baby.
Define Blastocyst: A thin-walled hollow structure in early embryonic development that contains a cluster of cells called the inner cell mass from which the embryo arises. The outer layer of cells gives rise to the placenta and other supporting tissues needed for fetal development within the uterus while the inner cell mass cells gives rise to the tissues of the body.
What is an embryo? Is a developing baby through the second month of growth after conception The rapidly dividing mass of cells inside the women’s uterus.
Fetus Is a developing baby from the ninth week after conception until birth. It’s the name given to the embryo from the third month on.
Think, Pair, Share Write down what you believe is the purpose of the placenta Discuss it with the person sitting to the right of you
Placenta Supplies fetus with oxygen Supplies fetus with nutrients Passes out wastes from the fetus
Umbilical Chord A rope like structure that connects the embryo to the placenta. 1 Large vein 2 arteries What 3 vessels are contained in the chord? Define Umbilical Chord?
Think, Pair, Share Write down what you believe is the purpose of the amniotic sac is. Discuss it with the person sitting to the in front of you
What is the amniotic sac used for? Temperature Control Protection from shock Barrier to infection
Think, Pair, Share Pick up your folder but do not take your notes out yet!! Discuss with your partner what you believe are some signs of pregnancy
Two types of insemination Artificial Insemination: Procedure when sperm is injected into the female with a syringe In-vitro Fertilization: Procedure that involves removing a living egg from a female, inseminating the egg with a donor sperm and returning the fertilized egg back into the woman
Why is prenatal care important to the mother and the baby? If baby doesn’t receive proper nutrition it may cause premature birth. A female should not drink alcohol when pregnant. This can cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which is the presence of severe birth defects. Females should not smoke or inhale smoke. This can cause smaller babies and unhealthy babies.
Why is diet and exercise important to the mother and the baby? It increases the chances of a healthy baby. Increases the chances of having a proper birth weight for the baby. Keeps the mother healthy during pregnancy. Also helps the mother lose the weight faster after pregnancy. Decrease chances of birth defects
Types of tests to check for abnormalities of the fetus Ultrasound: Test using sound waves to depict an image of the developing fetus. Usually performed at 10 weeks and on. Harmony: Harmony is more accurate than traditional Down syndrome blood tests and much less likely to give a false-positive result. That means there will be much less chance your doctor would recommend follow-up testing, such as amniocentesis. Harmony also tests for two other genetic conditions, trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) and trisomy. In addition, with Harmony you have the option to evaluate X and Y sex chromosomes.
Types of tests to check for abnormalities of the fetus Amniocentesis test: Checks for chromosomal abnormalities Spina bifida, down syndrome, hemophilia, tay- sachs, sickle cell anemia Chronic villus sampling test (CVS test): Done during early pregnancy A biopsy is taken of the villi in the placenta. Sickle cell anemia, hemophilia
Think, Pair, Share After hearing how important it is to be healthy during pregnancy, please write down how you believe both male and female can incorporate a healthy lifestyle. Ex: I believe they should wake up and go for a walk or jog each day before work, and then have a smoothie that is high in fiber.
Stages of pregnancy First trimester (Months 1-3) (Initial development and rapid growth): At the end of the first month, the embryo has a heartbeat, a two-lobed brain, and a spinal cord. By the end of the second month, the embryo is recognizable as a human and is called a fetus. After two months, the fetus has started to form arms and legs as well as fingers, ears, and toes. The fetus can be visibly identifies as a male or female. By the end of the first trimester, the heart has four chambers.
Stages of pregnancy Second trimester (Months 4-6) (Fetus Continues to form): By the end of the fourth month, fingernails, toenails, eyebrows, and eyelashes have developed. Teeth begin to form, lips appear, and head hair may begin to grow. Movement of the fetus can be felt by the mother. The fetus can bend its arms and make a fist. During the fifth month, the heartbeat can be detected by a stethoscope. By the end of the sixth month vernix (keeps body from dehydrating and skin from getting wrinkled) appear on baby.
Stages of pregnancy Third trimester (Months 7-9) (Growth): By the seventh month lanugo (fine hair grown to insulate the fetus) appears on the baby. By the eighth months fetus growth slows down and moves into a head-down position. By the ninth month the fetus is full term. Skin is smooth and waxy looking. The eyes are usually gray. Languo drops off.
Signs of Labor: The Show The mucous plug in the cervix, which acts as a seal during pregnancy, is passed as a blood stained or brownish discharge. Contractions: Coordinated muscular contractions are generated in the upper part of the uterus, the fundus. This helps to gradually open, or dilate, the cervix. Water breaks: The amniotic sac (membrane) around the baby ruptures, or breaks, allowing colorless amniotic fluid to pass out through the birth canal.
Stages of Labor Dilation of cervix: Longest stage of labor. Cervical opening enlarges eight to ten centimeters, which is wide enough for the baby to move through.
Stages of labor Delivery of the baby: Begins when cervix is completely dilated. The baby moves farther down the birth canal, usually head first. The mother pushes, and the muscles in the uterus contract to push the baby out. Baby’s head will be visible, which is called crowning. Ends with the delivery of the baby.
Stages of labor Delivery of the Placenta: Expulsion of the afterbirth, which is the placenta that is expelled after delivery. If this does not occur naturally the physician removes it.
Explain the difference between: Signs of Labor Stages of Labor
Crowning: The appearance of the baby’s head during delivery.
Multiple Births Identical Twins Are twins that develop from a single ovum fertilized by a single sperm that divides after fertilization to form two zygotes Have same chromosomes Always will be the same sex They share the same placenta but have separate amniotic sacs and umbilical cords Fraternal Twins Are twins that develop from two separate ova that are fertilized by two different sperm. Have different chromosomes Can be same sex or opposite sex They develop in separate amniotic sacs and have separate umbilical cords and placentas
Types of birth Natural birth: Delivery of a baby without using drugs or surgery during birth. Induced labor: The stimulation of uterine contractions before they occur spontaneously. Breech birth When baby delivered either foot first or buttocks first.
Types of Birth Inducing labor: Medication given or water sac broken by plastic hook (amnio-hook) Cesarean Section (C-Section): A form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mother's abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more babies. Epidural: A shot administered in the woman’s lower back to aid in pain relief.
Types of Birth Continued Episiotomy: An incision between the vagina and anus ( perineum) help with crowning of the baby, to prevent muscles from tearing Vacuum extraction: assist mother if she becomes too tired, cup on baby’s head with slight suction Forceps: guide baby’s head out of birth canal
Think, Pair, Share Discuss with the person sitting behind you. Which type of birth option do you believe you would like to have if given an option. Do you believe it is important to have the same opinion as your spouse? Why
LAMAZE BREATHING METHODS USED DURING THE DELIVERY PROCESS TO REDIRECT THE FOCUS FROM THE PAIN.
Birthing Options Hospital Safest and quickest method of delivery to receive immediate medical treatment Home Birth Comfort of delivery at own home, medical assistance is still needed Water Birth Is for women with “low risk” pregnancies, drug free births and minimal intervention
Birthing options Midwife Are certified house nurses The birth can take place at multiple different locations including a hospital, home or center Birth Center Birth centers are for women who want a certain comfort zone and few people around
Birthing Positions: Occiput Posterior: (Most common) Head down, chest facing front of the mother. Occiput Anterior: Head down, baby’s back facing front of mother. Left Occiput Transverse: Head down, baby’s facing left hip. Right Occiput Transverse: Head down, baby’s facing right hip.
APGAR SCALE IS AN ASSESSMENT TEST ON A SCALE OF 1- 10 PERFORMED BY A PEDIATRICIAN 7 OR HIGHER INDICATES BABY IN GOOD CONDITION 4 TO 6 BABY MAY NEED ASSISTANCE UNDER A 4 BABY MAY NEED LIFE SAVING TECHNIQUES
Think, Share Do you believe that a person should have an option if using different types of insemination in order to get pregnant? Why
Think, Share Do you agree with test to check for abnormalities of the fetus? Why.
Types of disabilities Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. May cause: Down Syndrome Low birth weight Small head Abnormal facial features Abnormalities in the heart Mental retardation
Premature Birth Is a birth before the 38 th week of gestation.
Causes of Premature Birth Premature birth can be caused by any number of factors such as high blood pressure or poor nutrition. Abnormalities of uterus or cervix Heavy smoking Drug use Generally poor health
Miscarriage A miscarriage is the loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. The medical term for a miscarriage is spontaneous abortion, but the condition is not an abortion in the common definition of the term. 50% of pregnancy ends in miscarriage, but usually before a women misses her menstrual period. 15% of recognized pregnancies end in a miscarriage.
Symptoms of a Miscarriage Bleeding which progresses from light to heavy Severe cramps Abdominal pain Fever Weakness Back pain
What causes a Miscarriage? Causes are not well known 1 st trimester causes are usually due to chromosomal abnormalities in the baby, but have nothing to do with mother of father. Infection, exposure to environmental hazards, hormonal problems, uterine abnormalities, incompetent cervix, lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, drugs, Disorder of the immune system (lupus), Severe kidney disease, Diabetes, Congenital heart disease, thyroid disease, Certain medications (Acne drugs Accutane), Severe malnutrition. Age also: Women in 20’s is 12-15% chance: Women at age 40 is 25%.
Stillbirth Stillbirth is the death of a baby during pregnancy after 20 weeks of gestation but before delivery. Stillbirth occurs in 1 out of every 200 pregnancies A doctor will usually have to give a woman medicine to start labor by giving her a C-section.
Causes of Stillbirth High Blood pressure Diabetes Blood-clotting problem Infection of mother or fetus Placental abruption (Tearing away from uterus to soon) Umbilical cord twisting, which can cut off oxygen to fetus Fetus may have a birth defect or slowed growth development
Types of disabilities continued Down Syndrome: Environment and genetics Extra 21 st chromosome Cleft lip/palate: Environment and genetics Two sides of upper lip do not grow together properly. Club foot: Environment and genetics One or both feet twisted (present at birth)
Types of disabilities continued Cystic fibrosis: Genetics Thick mucus interferes with breathing, blocks lungs, and causes coughing. Diabetes: Environment and genetics Extreme thirst and increased appetite. Caused by obesity and is predicted that every 1 out of 3 children will be born with type two diabetes
Types of disabilities continued Hemophilia: Usually genetic Blood does not clot properly Sickle cell Anemia: Genetics Red blood cells are sickle-shaped instead of round-shaped. Severe Anemia
Types of disabilities continued Spina Bifida: Caused by environment and genetics Spinal cord forms outside of spinal column Problems range from loss of bowel and bladder control to paralysis and mental retardation Tay-Sachs: Genetics Nervous system disorder Baby will have poor psychomotor development, weakness and sluggishness. Eventually blindness, paralysis, mental retardation and seizures occur. Death usually takes place by five years of age