3Signs of Pregnancy Missed menstrual period Excessive tenderness in her breastsFatigueChange in appetiteMorning SicknessMay have spotting or light, irregular menstrual flow
4Am I Pregnant?Urine Test: This is a quick simple test that test for the hormone HCG within the females urine. HCG is released by a women when the egg attaches to the lining of the Uterus. HCG is only released when a female is pregnant. (EPT = Early Pregnancy Test)Blood Test: This test also detects HCG, but you must go to a doctor and have blood drawn. Most people get the blood test after they tested positive for the urine test.
5MEDICAL SPECIALISTOBSTETRICIAN: DOCTOR WHO SPECIALIZES IN CARE OF A PREGNANT WOMEN AND THE DEVELOPING FETUSGYNECOLOGIST: DOCTOR WHO SPECIALIZES IN CARE OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
6PREGNANCY TERMPregnancy is based on 40 weeks of development. 10 months in total.1st month we DO NOT count due to the fact of not knowingBroken down into three sections called trimesters
7Define UterusIs a muscular organ that receives and supports the fertilized ovum during pregnancy and contracts during childbirth to help with delivery.
8Where does fertilization occur? What is Fertilization?Where does fertilization occur?Is joining of an egg cell and a sperm cell.Fallopian tubeThe process begins when an egg is released from one of the woman’s ovaries and enters the fallopian tube. The egg remains in the fallopian tube for hrs. in order for fertilization to take place.
9Define Ovum Also know as the egg cell The egg cell; If fertilization occurs the egg will become an embryo.
10Define Zygote:The cell produced when a sperm fertilizes an egg; contains genetic material that forms the baby.
11Define Blastocyst:A thin-walled hollow structure in early embryonic development that contains a cluster of cells called the inner cell mass from which the embryo arises. The outer layer of cells gives rise to the placenta and other supporting tissues needed for fetal development within the uterus while the inner cell mass cells gives rise to the tissues of the body.
12What is an embryo?Is a developing baby through the second month of growth after conceptionThe rapidly dividing mass of cells inside the women’s uterus.
13FetusIs a developing baby from the ninth week after conception until birth.It’s the name given to the embryo from the third month on.
14Think, Pair, ShareWrite down what you believe is the purpose of the placentaDiscuss it with the person sitting to the right of you
15Placenta Supplies fetus with oxygen Supplies fetus with nutrients Passes out wastes from the fetus
16Umbilical Chord Define Umbilical Chord? What 3 vessels are contained in the chord?A rope like structure that connects the embryo to the placenta.1 Large vein2 arteries
17Think, Pair, ShareWrite down what you believe is the purpose of the amniotic sac is.Discuss it with the person sitting to the in front of you
18What is the amniotic sac used for? Temperature ControlProtection from shockBarrier to infection
19Think, Pair, SharePick up your folder but do not take your notes out yet!!Discuss with your partner what you believe are some signs of pregnancy
20Two types of insemination Artificial Insemination:Procedure when sperm is injected into the female with a syringeIn-vitro Fertilization:Procedure that involves removing a living egg from a female, inseminating the egg with a donor sperm and returning the fertilized egg back into the woman
21Why is prenatal care important to the mother and the baby? If baby doesn’t receive proper nutrition it may cause premature birth.A female should not drink alcohol when pregnant. This can cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, which is the presence of severe birth defects.Females should not smoke or inhale smoke. This can cause smaller babies and unhealthy babies.
22Why is diet and exercise important to the mother and the baby? It increases the chances of a healthy baby.Increases the chances of having a proper birth weight for the baby.Keeps the mother healthy during pregnancy. Also helps the mother lose the weight faster after pregnancy.Decrease chances of birth defects
23Types of tests to check for abnormalities of the fetus Ultrasound:Test using sound waves to depict an image of the developing fetus. Usually performed at 10 weeks and on.Harmony:Harmony is more accurate than traditional Down syndrome blood tests and much less likely to give a false-positive result. That means there will be much less chance your doctor would recommend follow-up testing, such as amniocentesis.Harmony also tests for two other genetic conditions, trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) and trisomy.In addition, with Harmony you have the optionto evaluate X and Y sex chromosomes.
24Types of tests to check for abnormalities of the fetus Amniocentesis test:Checks for chromosomal abnormalitiesSpina bifida, down syndrome, hemophilia, tay- sachs, sickle cell anemiaChronic villus sampling test (CVS test):Done during early pregnancyA biopsy is taken of the villi in the placenta.Sickle cell anemia, hemophilia
25Think, Pair, ShareAfter hearing how important it is to be healthy during pregnancy, please write down how you believe both male and female can incorporate a healthy lifestyle.Ex: I believe they should wake up and go for a walk or jog each day before work, and then have a smoothie that is high in fiber.
26Stages of pregnancyFirst trimester (Months 1-3) (Initial development and rapid growth):At the end of the first month, the embryo has a heartbeat, a two-lobed brain, and a spinal cord.By the end of the second month, the embryo is recognizable as a human and is called a fetus. After two months, the fetus has started to form arms and legs as well as fingers, ears, and toes. The fetus can be visibly identifies as a male or female. By the end of the first trimester, the heart has four chambers.
27Stages of pregnancySecond trimester (Months 4-6) (Fetus Continues to form):By the end of the fourth month, fingernails, toenails, eyebrows, and eyelashes have developed. Teeth begin to form, lips appear, and head hair may begin to grow. Movement of the fetus can be felt by the mother. The fetus can bend its arms and make a fist. During the fifth month, the heartbeat can be detected by a stethoscope.By the end of the sixth month vernix (keeps body from dehydrating and skin from getting wrinkled) appear on baby.
28Stages of pregnancy Third trimester (Months 7-9) (Growth): By the seventh month lanugo (fine hair grown to insulate the fetus) appears on the baby.By the eighth months fetus growth slows down and moves into a head-down position.By the ninth month the fetus is full term. Skin is smooth and waxy looking. The eyes are usually gray. Languo drops off.
29Signs of Labor: The Show The mucous plug in the cervix, which acts as a seal during pregnancy, is passed as a blood stained or brownish discharge.Contractions:Coordinated muscular contractions are generated in the upper part of the uterus, the fundus. This helps to gradually open, or dilate, the cervix.Water breaks:The amniotic sac (membrane) around the baby ruptures, or breaks, allowing colorless amniotic fluid to pass out through the birth canal.
30Stages of Labor Dilation of cervix: Longest stage of labor. Cervical opening enlarges eight to ten centimeters, which is wide enough for the baby to move through.
31Stages of labor Delivery of the baby: Begins when cervix is completely dilated.The baby moves farther down the birth canal, usually head first. The mother pushes, and the muscles in the uterus contract to push the baby out.Baby’s head will be visible, which is called crowning.Ends with the delivery of the baby.
32Stages of labor Delivery of the Placenta: Expulsion of the afterbirth, which is the placenta that is expelled after delivery. If this does not occur naturally the physician removes it.
33Explain the difference between: Signs of LaborStages of Labor
34Crowning:The appearance of the baby’s head during delivery.
35Multiple Births Fraternal Twins Identical Twins Are twins that develop from a single ovum fertilized by a single sperm that divides after fertilization to form two zygotesHave same chromosomesAlways will be the same sexThey share the same placenta but have separate amniotic sacs and umbilical cordsAre twins that develop from two separate ova that are fertilized by two different sperm.Have different chromosomesCan be same sex or opposite sexThey develop in separate amniotic sacs and have separate umbilical cords and placentas
36Types of birth Natural birth: Induced labor: Breech birth Delivery of a baby without using drugs or surgery during birth.Induced labor:The stimulation of uterine contractions before they occur spontaneously.Breech birthWhen baby delivered either foot first or buttocks first.
37Types of Birth Inducing labor: Cesarean Section (C-Section): Epidural: Medication given or water sac broken by plastic hook (amnio-hook)Cesarean Section (C-Section):A form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mother's abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more babies.Epidural:A shot administered in the woman’s lower back to aid in pain relief.
38Types of Birth Continued Episiotomy:An incision between the vagina and anus (perineum) help with crowning of the baby, to prevent muscles from tearingVacuum extraction:assist mother if she becomes too tired, cup on baby’s head with slight suctionForceps:guide baby’s head out of birth canal
39Think, Pair, Share Discuss with the person sitting behind you. Which type of birth option do you believe you would like to have if given an option.Do you believe it is important to have the same opinion as your spouse? Why
40LAMAZEBREATHING METHODS USED DURING THE DELIVERY PROCESS TO REDIRECT THE FOCUS FROM THE PAIN.
41Birthing Options Hospital Home Birth Water Birth Safest and quickest method of delivery to receive immediate medical treatmentHome BirthComfort of delivery at own home, medical assistance is still neededWater BirthIs for women with “low risk” pregnancies, drug free births and minimal intervention
42Birthing options Midwife Birth Center Are certified house nurses The birth can take place at multiple different locations including a hospital, home or centerBirth CenterBirth centers are for women who want a certain comfort zone and few people around
43Birthing Positions:Occiput Posterior: (Most common) Head down, chest facing front of the mother.Occiput Anterior: Head down, baby’s back facing front of mother.Left Occiput Transverse: Head down, baby’s facing left hip.Right Occiput Transverse: Head down, baby’s facing right hip.
44APGAR SCALE IS AN ASSESSMENT TEST ON A SCALE OF 1- 10 PERFORMED BY A PEDIATRICIAN7 OR HIGHER INDICATES BABY IN GOOD CONDITION4 TO 6 BABY MAY NEED ASSISTANCEUNDER A 4 BABY MAY NEED LIFE SAVING TECHNIQUES
45Think, ShareDo you believe that a person should have an option if using different types of insemination in order to get pregnant? Why
46Think, ShareDo you agree with test to check for abnormalities of the fetus? Why.
47Types of disabilities Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. May cause:Down SyndromeLow birth weightSmall headAbnormal facial featuresAbnormalities in the heartMental retardation
49Premature BirthIs a birth before the 38th week of gestation.
50Causes of Premature Birth Premature birth can be caused by any number of factors such as high blood pressure or poor nutrition.Abnormalities of uterus or cervixHeavy smokingDrug useGenerally poor health
51MiscarriageA miscarriage is the loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. The medical term for a miscarriage is spontaneous abortion, but the condition is not an abortion in the common definition of the term.50% of pregnancy ends in miscarriage, but usually before a women misses her menstrual period.15% of recognized pregnancies end in a miscarriage.
52Symptoms of a Miscarriage Bleeding which progresses from light to heavySevere crampsAbdominal painFeverWeaknessBack pain
53What causes a Miscarriage? Causes are not well known1st trimester causes are usually due to chromosomal abnormalities in the baby, but have nothing to do with mother of father.Infection, exposure to environmental hazards, hormonal problems, uterine abnormalities, incompetent cervix, lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, drugs, Disorder of the immune system (lupus), Severe kidney disease, Diabetes, Congenital heart disease, thyroid disease, Certain medications (Acne drugs Accutane), Severe malnutrition.Age also: Women in 20’s is 12-15% chance: Women at age 40 is 25%.
54StillbirthStillbirth is the death of a baby during pregnancy after 20 weeks of gestation but before delivery.Stillbirth occurs in 1 out of every 200 pregnanciesA doctor will usually have to give a woman medicine to start labor by giving her a C-section.
55Causes of Stillbirth High Blood pressure Diabetes Blood-clotting problemInfection of mother or fetusPlacental abruption (Tearing away from uterus to soon)Umbilical cord twisting, which can cut off oxygen to fetusFetus may have a birth defect or slowed growth development
56Types of disabilities continued Down Syndrome:Environment and geneticsExtra 21st chromosomeCleft lip/palate:Two sides of upper lip do not grow together properly.Club foot:One or both feet twisted (present at birth)
57Types of disabilities continued Cystic fibrosis:GeneticsThick mucus interferes with breathing, blocks lungs, and causes coughing.Diabetes:Environment and geneticsExtreme thirst and increased appetite.Caused by obesity and is predicted that every 1 out of 3 children will be born with type two diabetes
58Types of disabilities continued Hemophilia:Usually geneticBlood does not clot properlySickle cell Anemia:GeneticsRed blood cells are sickle-shaped instead of round-shaped. Severe Anemia
59Types of disabilities continued Spina Bifida:Caused by environment and geneticsSpinal cord forms outside of spinal columnProblems range from loss of bowel and bladder control to paralysis and mental retardationTay-Sachs:GeneticsNervous system disorderBaby will have poor psychomotor development, weakness and sluggishness. Eventually blindness, paralysis, mental retardation and seizures occur. Death usually takes place by five years of age