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PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers

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Presentation on theme: "PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers"— Presentation transcript:

1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers
PowerPoint Slides Jessica Mulder Used slides from: Amy Roberts- Roosevelt University Psychology 7e in Modules

2 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Module 8
Psychology 7e in Modules

3 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Conception Prenatal Development The Competent Newborn Psychology 7e in Modules

4 Developmental Psychology
Issue Details Nature/Nurture How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior? Continuity/Stages Is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages? Stability/Change Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age. OBJECTIVE 8-1| State the three areas of change that developmental psychologists study, and identify the three major issues in developmental psychology. Psychology 7e in Modules

5 Prenatal Development and the Newborn
How, over time, did we come to be who we are? From zygote to birth, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence. Psychology 7e in Modules

6 Prenatal Development How do we go from a Zygote, to Embryo, and Fetus?
Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company Biophoto Associates/ Photo Researchers, Inc. OBJECTIVE 8-3| Define zygote, embryo and fetus, and explain how teratogens can affect development. All of us begin as one cell, and then our cells divide. When a fertilized egg reaches 100 cells, it is called a zygote. After this, the cells begin to differentiate. Some become brain tissue, others the heart, and still others your eyes. After 10 days, these cells attach to the uterine wall and forms a placenta, through which nurishment passes. At approximately 14 days, the cells become an embryo. Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company Psychology 7e in Modules

7 Conception A single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuse to form one fertilized cell. OBJECTIVE 8-2| Describe the union of sperm and egg at conception. Women are born with all the eggs they will ever have. Men, however, produce sperm 24/7. Over 200 million sperm are released during intercourse. Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company Psychology 7e in Modules

8 Conception Continued Psychology 7e in Modules

9 Zygote Period From fertilization to implantation. (approx. 2 weeks)
Cell duplication increases throughout this period. Blastocyst: cells form a hollow fluid filled ball embryonic disk: becomes the fetus trophoblast: becomes the placenta Early umbilical chord present Psychology 7e in Modules

10 Embryo Stage ectoderm: will be nervous system & skin
From implantation until the 8th week of pregnancy. Fastest period of prenatal growth Embryonic disk separates into: ectoderm: will be nervous system & skin mesoderm: will be muscles, skeleton, etc. endoderm: will be other major organs Neurons form and move along the neural tube to their permanent homes Eyes , ears, nose, neck, and arm leg buds form. Psychology 7e in Modules

11 Fetal period Fetus increases dramatically in size (from a little over an inch to approx. 19)‏ Systems and organs get more organized and connected. The mother begins to feel the fetus’s movements. The fetus is “awake” more of the time Age of viability: 22 to 26 weeks Psychology 7e in Modules

12 Teratogens in General The susceptibility of the organism depends on...
the stage of its development individual differences physiological state of the mother the concentration of the teratogen Teratogenic effects tend to... be specific to a particular organ vary dramatically in how they affect the mother - sometimes influencing the mother little or not at all Psychology 7e in Modules

13 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Abnormally small head, underdeveloped brain, eye abnormalities, congenital heart disease, joint anomalies, malformations of the face Most serious damage from alcohol caused in first weeks of pregnancy (!!!)‏ Psychology 7e in Modules

14 Teratogens: Drugs Caffeine: Increased rate of spontaneous abortion and low birth weight Marijuana: Low birth weight, premature delivery; infants startle more readily, have tremors, and experience sleep cycle problems Cocaine: More likely to be stillborn or premature, have low birth weights, have strokes, have birth defects; infants more irritable, uncoordinated, slow learners Methadone & Heroin: Born addicted; likely to be premature, underweight, vulnerable to respiratory illness, tremors, irritable; infants have difficulty attending Prescription (and over the counter): may also be harmful Psychology 7e in Modules

15 Teratogens: Disease Rubella (German measles): More than half of all babies born to mothers who had the disease early in pregnancy develop a syndrome of congenital heart disease, cataracts, deafness, and mental retardation AIDS: Approximately 30% of the babies born to mothers who test positive for the AIDS virus acquire this disease. AIDS progresses really fast in infants - most live only 5 to 8 months Infants are particularly susceptible to the herpes family of viruses Toxoplasmosis: parasite that can lead to birth defects Psychology 7e in Modules

16 Teratogens: Critical Periods
Psychology 7e in Modules

17 The Competent Newborn Infants are born with reflexes that aid survival, including the rooting reflex that helps them locate food. OBJECTIVE 8-4| Describe some of the abilities of the newborn, and explain how researchers use habituation to assess infant sensory and cognitive abilities. Psychology 7e in Modules

18 Reflexes Grasping/ Palmar Rooting Sucking Babinski Swallowing Stepping
Grasp tightly to an object placed in the hand. Rooting Lightly touching the cheek causes the baby to turn preparing for nursing. Sucking Inserting an object in the mouth will cause the baby to suck on the object. Babinski Lightly moving a finger on the bottom of the foot causes the toes to fan outward and curl. Swallowing Placing liquid in the mouth causes the baby to swallow. Stepping Baby will step when held upright. Moro When startled or dropped baby will fling arms outward than inward. Psychology 7e in Modules

19 The Competent Newborn Offspring cries are important signals for parents to provide nourishment. In animals and in humans such cries are quickly attended to and relieved. Carl and Ann Purcell/ Corbis Lightscapes, Inc. Corbis Psychology 7e in Modules

20 Cognitive Development in the Newborn
Investigators study infants getting habituated to objects over some duration of time. New objects are paid more attention than habituated ones, showing learning. Psychology 7e in Modules

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