3 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Conception Prenatal Development The Competent Newborn
4 Developmental Psychology IssueDetails Nature/Nurture How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior? Continuity/Stages Is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages? Stability/Change Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age.
5 Prenatal Development and the Newborn How, over time, did we come to be who we are? From zygote to birth, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence.
6 Prenatal Development How do we go from a Zygote, to Embryo, and Fetus? Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company Biophoto Associates/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company
7 Conception A single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuse to form one fertilized cell. Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company
9 Zygote Period From fertilization to implantation. (approx. 2 weeks) Cell duplication increases throughout this period. Blastocyst: cells form a hollow fluid filled ball embryonic disk: becomes the fetus trophoblast: becomes the placenta Early umbilical chord present
10 Embryo Stage From implantation until the 8th week of pregnancy. Fastest period of prenatal growth Embryonic disk separates into: –ectoderm: will be nervous system & skin –mesoderm: will be muscles, skeleton, etc. –endoderm: will be other major organs Neurons form and move along the neural tube to their permanent homes Eyes, ears, nose, neck, and arm leg buds form.
11 Fetus increases dramatically in size (from a little over an inch to approx. 19) Systems and organs get more organized and connected. The mother begins to feel the fetus’s movements. The fetus is “awake” more of the time Age of viability: 22 to 26 weeks Fetal period
12 The susceptibility of the organism depends on... the stage of its development individual differences physiological state of the mother the concentration of the teratogen Teratogenic effects tend to... be specific to a particular organ vary dramatically in how they affect the mother - sometimes influencing the mother little or not at all Teratogens in General
13 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Abnormally small head, underdeveloped brain, eye abnormalities, congenital heart disease, joint anomalies, malformations of the face Most serious damage from alcohol caused in first weeks of pregnancy (!!!)
14 Teratogens: Drugs Caffeine: Increased rate of spontaneous abortion and low birth weight Marijuana: Low birth weight, premature delivery; infants startle more readily, have tremors, and experience sleep cycle problems Cocaine: More likely to be stillborn or premature, have low birth weights, have strokes, have birth defects; infants more irritable, uncoordinated, slow learners Methadone & Heroin: Born addicted; likely to be premature, underweight, vulnerable to respiratory illness, tremors, irritable; infants have difficulty attending Prescription (and over the counter): may also be harmful
15 Teratogens: Disease Rubella (German measles): More than half of all babies born to mothers who had the disease early in pregnancy develop a syndrome of congenital heart disease, cataracts, deafness, and mental retardation AIDS: Approximately 30% of the babies born to mothers who test positive for the AIDS virus acquire this disease. AIDS progresses really fast in infants - most live only 5 to 8 months Infants are particularly susceptible to the herpes family of viruses Toxoplasmosis: parasite that can lead to birth defects
17 The Competent Newborn Infants are born with reflexes that aid survival, including the rooting reflex that helps them locate food.
18 Reflexes Grasping/ Palmar Grasp tightly to an object placed in the hand. Rooting Lightly touching the cheek causes the baby to turn preparing for nursing. Sucking Inserting an object in the mouth will cause the baby to suck on the object. Babinski Lightly moving a finger on the bottom of the foot causes the toes to fan outward and curl. Swallowing Placing liquid in the mouth causes the baby to swallow. Stepping Baby will step when held upright. Moro When startled or dropped baby will fling arms outward than inward.
19 The Competent Newborn Offspring cries are important signals for parents to provide nourishment. In animals and in humans such cries are quickly attended to and relieved. Carl and Ann Purcell/ Corbis Lightscapes, Inc. Corbis
20 Cognitive Development in the Newborn Investigators study infants getting habituated to objects over some duration of time. New objects are paid more attention than habituated ones, showing learning.