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Ions and Bonding. Define ion, ionic bond, ionic compound. Use Bohr models to show how ionization and ionic bonding occur Key Words ionic compoundformula.

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Presentation on theme: "Ions and Bonding. Define ion, ionic bond, ionic compound. Use Bohr models to show how ionization and ionic bonding occur Key Words ionic compoundformula."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ions and Bonding

2 Define ion, ionic bond, ionic compound. Use Bohr models to show how ionization and ionic bonding occur Key Words ionic compoundformula unit negative ionsionic bond positive ions

3 The Octet Rule An atom with eight electrons in its outer orbit is very stable. Chemical reactions occur as atoms try to obtain a full outer orbit like the Noble gases.

4 Atoms will acquire a full outer shell in 3 ways: Give away an e - to another atom. Take an e - from another atom. Share an e - with another atom. When a neutral atom gives an e - away it ends up with a positive charge. The atom is now called a positive ION OR cation.

5 Sodium atom: 11 p + 11 e - Na Sodium ion: 11 p + 10 e - Na + (cation) +

6 Atoms that take an e - end up with a negative charge – called a negative ion (anion) Chlorine atom: 17 p + 17 e - Cl Chlorine ion: 17 p + 18 e - Cl - (anion) -

7 Metals will lose (give) e - to become cations. Non-metals will gain (take) e - to be anions. The number of e - an atom must lose or gain is called the combining capacity ( = charge of ion). Group# of Valence e - Lose or gainCombining capacity Alkali metals1Lose 1+1 Earth metals2Lose 2+2 Chalogens6Gain 2-2 Halogens7Gain 1 Noble Gases

8 Calcium atom: 20 p + 20 e - Ca Calcium ion: 20 p + 18 e - Ca +2 (cation) +2

9 Oxygen atom: 8 p + 8 e - O Oxygen ion: 8 p + 10 e - O -2 (anion) -2

10 Nitrogen atom: 7 p + 7 e - N Nitrogen ion: 7 p + 10 e - N -3 (anion) -3

11 *The LESS electrons to move, the GREATER the reactivity of the element. A Chemical Reaction: Movement of electrons between combining atoms that results in the formation of a NEW substance.

12 Attractive forces hold opposite charges together – IONIC BOND. Ionic compounds - a positive ion (METAL) joins with a negative ion (NON-METAL).

13 Sodium atom (Na)Chlorine atom (Cl) Sodium ion (Na + ) Chlorine ion (Cl - ) + - Sodium Chloride NaCl (ionic bond)

14 Atoms combine together to form compounds in fixed ratios or definite proportions. 1 Naforms an ionic bond with 1 Cl 10 Na 10 Cl 65 Na65 Cl The smallest unit of an ionic compound is called a formula unit.

15 Aluminum 1 : 1 Nitrogen Al +3 N -3 As atoms combine in definite proportions: AlN Aluminum Nitride

16 As atoms combine in definite proportions: 1 : 3 AluminumFluorine Al +3 3 F - AlF 3 Aluminum Fluoride

17 Use Bohr diagrams to illustrate the compounds formed from the following reaction: Ca and F Na and P Mg and N

18 formula unit Ionic Compounds


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