Presentation on theme: "1920’s Era 1.Republican Control Harding presidency Coolidge Presidency Hoover Presidency 2.Republican Policies Taxes New Laissez Fire Isolation 3.1920’s."— Presentation transcript:
1920’s Era 1.Republican Control Harding presidency Coolidge Presidency Hoover Presidency 2.Republican Policies Taxes New Laissez Fire Isolation ’s Mixed Economic Results Business Booms Farm Problem Economic inequalities 4.Culture of the 1920’s Jazz Age Consumerism Flappers Lost generation Harlem Renaissance Hero's of the 1920’s
1920’s Era Continued 5. Cultural Conflicts of the 1920’ Palmer Raids Scopes Trial Prohibition Nativism / Sacco & Vanzetti KKK 6. Foreign Policy of the 1920’s Disarmament Kellog- Briand Pact Business & Diplomacy War Debts & Reparations
The 1920 Election
Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European… Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European…
The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second from right), and members of the cabinet. The 1920 Election
Harding and Coolidge Republican presidents appeal to traditional American values Harding dies in office after 2 years. Scandals break after his death – Teapot Dome Scandal Calvin Coolidge becomes President after Harding’s death in Republican presidents appeal to traditional American values Harding dies in office after 2 years. Scandals break after his death – Teapot Dome Scandal Calvin Coolidge becomes President after Harding’s death in Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. Fall found guilty of taking a bribe.
Republican Policies Return to "normalcy" – tariffs raised – corporate, income taxes cut – spending cuts Government-business cooperation – “The business of government, is business” Return to “isolation” Return to "normalcy" – tariffs raised – corporate, income taxes cut – spending cuts Government-business cooperation – “The business of government, is business” Return to “isolation”
The 1924 Election Calvin Coolidge served as President from 1923 to “Silent Cal”. Republican president Calvin Coolidge served as President from 1923 to “Silent Cal”. Republican president
++ = $$ LAISSEZ FAIRE REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG BUSINESS………. Lower Taxes Less Federal Higher Strong Spending Tariffs National Economy Fordney-McCumber Tariff Hawley-Smoot Tariff raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%!!!
Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. Fall found guilty of taking a bribe. Sinclair and Doheny were acquitted of charges.
Mixed Economy of 1920’s Business Prosperity –Increase production Taylorization Ford & Assembly Line New Energy Technologies Government Policies –Farm Problems Low prices Heavy debt for equipment Closing market following the war
Culture of the 1920’s Jazz Age Consumerism Impact of the Auto Entertainment
Duke Ellington Louis Armstrong Flappers doing the Charleston Jack Dempsey Heavy Weight Champ
“Flappers” sought individual freedom Ongoing crusade for equal rights “cult of domesticity” Most women remain in the “cult of domesticity” sphere Discovery of adolescence Teenaged children no longer needed to work and indulged their craving for excitement
The Playful flapper here we see, The fairest of the fair. She's not what Grandma used to be, You might say, au contraire. Her girlish ways may make a stir, Her manners cause a scene, But there is no more harm in her Than in a submarine. She nightly knocks for many a goal The usual dancing men. Her speed is great, but her control Is something else again. All spotlights focus on her pranks. All tongues her prowess herald. For which she well may render thanks To God and Scott Fitzgerald. Her golden rule is plain enough - Just get them young and treat them rough. by Dorothy Parker
The Second Industrial Revolution U.S. develops the highest standard of living in the world The twenties and the second revolution –electricity replaces steam –Henry Ford’s modern assembly line introduced Rise of the airline industry Modern appliances and conveniences begin to change American society
The Automobile Industry Auto makers stimulate sales through model changes, advertising Auto industry fostered the growth of other businesses Autos encourage movement and more individual freedom.
Glenwood Stove and Washing Machine
Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting. Transmitted 100 watts on a wavelength of 360 meters. KDKA first broadcast was the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns on November 2, KDKA 220 stations eighteen months after KDKA took the plunge. $50 to $150 for first radios 3,000,000 homes had them by 1922.
$60 millionRadio sets, parts and accessories brought in $60 million in 1922… $136 million $136 million in 1923 $852 million$852 million in 1929 every third homeRadio reached into every third home in its first decade. Listening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925
Patterns of Economic Growth Structural change –professional managers replace individual entrepreneurs –corporations become the dominant business form Big business weakens regionalism, brings uniformity to America
Cultural Conflicts of the 1920’s The Red Scare & Palmer Raids Nativism / Sacco & Vanzetti KKK Scopes Trial Prohibition
Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits". "Reds” (Communists)."Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators” (Communists). Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. 6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. No due process was followed Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
US Attorney General Mitchell Palmer wrote an essay “A Case Against The Reds” in which he blamed communist for all social conflict of the era. Striking workers, political organizers and demonstrators were rounded up jailed or sent to the Soviet Union being accused as communists.
Under the Palmer Raids… Newly appointed director of the General Intelligence Division J. Edger Hoover Suspended peoples civil rights running a spy agency on any American suspected of radical political activity (Communist sympathizes) A Connecticut salesman was sentenced to 6 months in jail for saying “Lenin is smart” Hoover Guy who said “Lenin is smart”
“undesirable”The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. Emergency Quota Act of 1921Immigration Act of 1924Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and Immigration Act of 1924 Kept out immigrants from southeastern Europe.
“undesirable”The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. Emergency Quota Act of 1921Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in Immigration Act of 1924Immigration Act of 1924, the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America.
Cartoon from 1919: “Put them out and keep them out”
Italian immigrants murderingNicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. anti-foreignismIn this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well. Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed.
KKK membership reaches 5 million Hitler rises in Germany
was to reduce crime and poverty and improve the quality of lifeGoal: was to reduce crime and poverty and improve the quality of life by making it impossible for people to get their hands on alcohol. "Noble Experiment"This "Noble Experiment" was a failure. Midnight, January 16th, 1920, US went dry. 18th Amendment Volstead Act,The 18th Amendment, known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale and possession of alcohol in America. Prohibition lasted for thirteen years. bootlegging, speakeasies and Bathtub Gin.So was born the industry of bootlegging, speakeasies and Bathtub Gin.
drankPeople drank more than ever during Prohibition, and there were more deaths related to alcohol. flagrantlydecent law-abidingNo other law in America has been violated so flagrantly by so many "decent law-abiding" people. criminalsOvernight, many became criminals. Mobsters controlled liquor created a booming black market economy. Gangsters owned speakeasies and by 1925 there were over 100,000 speakeasies in New York City alone.
Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a hidden underground brewery during the prohibition era. Agent with the U.S. Treasury Department's Prohibition Bureau during a time when bootlegging was rampant throughout the nation. Chicago gangster during Prohibition who controlled the “bootlegging” industry. Al Capone Elliot Ness, part of the Untouchables
“Prohibition is an awful flop. We like it. It can't stop what it's meant to stop. We like it. It's left a trail of graft and slime, It's filled our land with vice and crime, It can't prohibit worth a dime, Nevertheless we're for it.” Franklin Pierce Adams, New York World “It is impossible to stop liquor trickling through a dotted line” A Prohibition agent
1925 vs. The first conflict between religion vs. science being taught in school was in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee.
John T. Scopes Respected high school biology teacher arrested in Dayton, Tennessee for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. Clarence Darrow Famous trial lawyer who represented Scopes William J. Bryan Sec. of State for President Wilson, ran for president three times, turned evangelical leader. Represented the prosecution. Dayton, Tennessee Small town in the south became protective against the encroachment of modern times and secular teachings.
The trial is conducted in a carnival-like atmosphere. The people of Dayton are seen as ‘backward’ by the country. The right to teach and protect Biblical teachings in schools. The acceptance of science and that all species have evolved from lower forms of beings over billions of years.