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1. Themes: 1920’s has been referred to as Eat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we die Return to normalcy US turned inward---isolationism Jazz Age first.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Themes: 1920’s has been referred to as Eat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we die Return to normalcy US turned inward---isolationism Jazz Age first."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Themes: 1920’s has been referred to as Eat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we die Return to normalcy US turned inward---isolationism Jazz Age first modern era in the U.S. change from a rural society to an urban. 2. Cultural clashes in US Traditional America vs a changing America Hostility towards un-American ideas Red ScareWhy? Feared communism……..Red Scare KKKRise of KKK Immigration restriction Sacco and Vanzetti

2 Scopes Trial---evolution vs creation Liberated woman vs traditional Flappers Margaret Sangor----Birth control African Americans move to the cities led to race riots Americans violate Prohibition 18 th Amendment Volstead Act 3. Revolution in styles and technologies. electricity, radio, automobile, mass media Fads---new dances, music & clothing 4. American heroes: Babe Ruth and Charles Lindbergh

3 5. Presidents during the 1920’s Conservative Republicans Supported laissez faire Warren Harding 1921 to 1923 Teapot Dome Scandal Calvin Coolidge 1921 to 1929 Coolidge-Mellon Fiscal Program 6. Foreign policy during the 1920’s and early 30s.

4 The 1920 Election

5 Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European… Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European…

6 The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second from right), and members of the cabinet. The 1920 Election

7 Harding and Coolidge n Republican presidents appeal to traditional American values n Harding dies in office after 2 years. n Scandals break after his death – Teapot Dome Scandal n Calvin Coolidge becomes President after Harding’s death in n Republican presidents appeal to traditional American values n Harding dies in office after 2 years. n Scandals break after his death – Teapot Dome Scandal n Calvin Coolidge becomes President after Harding’s death in   Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny   Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair.   Fall found guilty of taking a bribe.

8 Republican Policies n Return to "normalcy" – tariffs raised – corporate, income taxes cut – spending cuts n Government-business cooperation – “The business of government, is business” n Return to “isolation” n Return to "normalcy" – tariffs raised – corporate, income taxes cut – spending cuts n Government-business cooperation – “The business of government, is business” n Return to “isolation”

9 The 1924 Election   Calvin Coolidge served as President from 1923 to   “Silent Cal”.   Republican president   Calvin Coolidge served as President from 1923 to   “Silent Cal”.   Republican president

10 ++ = $$ LAISSEZ FAIRE REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG BUSINESS………. Lower Taxes Less Federal Higher Strong Spending Tariffs National Economy Fordney-McCumber Tariff Hawley-Smoot Tariff raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%!!!

11 Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. Fall found guilty of taking a bribe. Sinclair and Doheny were acquitted of charges.

12 n Decade notable for obsessive interest in celebrities n Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainment n Eat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we die n Return to normalcy n US turned inward---isolationism n Jazz Age n first modern era in the U.S.

13 The Second Industrial Revolution n U.S. develops the highest standard of living in the world n The twenties and the second revolution –electricity replaces steam –Henry Ford’s modern assembly line introduced n Rise of the airline industry n Modern appliances and conveniences begin to change American society

14 The Automobile Industry n Auto makers stimulate sales through model changes, advertising n Auto industry fostered the growth of other businesses n Autos encourage movement and more individual freedom.

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16 Patterns of Economic Growth n Structural change –professional managers replace individual entrepreneurs –corporations become the dominant business form n Big business weakens regionalism, brings uniformity to America

17 Economic Weaknesses n Railroads poorly managed n Coal displaced by petroleum n Farmers face decline in exports, prices n Growing disparity between income of laborers, middle-class managers n Middle class speculates with idle money

18   Rural Americans identify urban culture with Communism, crime, immorality   Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainment   Communities of home, church, and school are absent in the cities   Conflict: Traditional values vs new ideas found in the cities.   Rural Americans identify urban culture with Communism, crime, immorality   Sex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainment   Communities of home, church, and school are absent in the cities   Conflict: Traditional values vs new ideas found in the cities.

19 IKA IKA Imperial Klans of America

20 Rise of the KKK was do to the ever changing of a traditional America.   1925: Membership of 5 million   1926: Marched on Washington.   Attack on urban culture and defends Christian/Protestant and rural values   Against immigrants from Southern Europe, European Jews, Catholics and American Blacks   Sought to win U.S. by persuasion and gaining control in local/state government.   Violence, internal corruption result in Klan’s virtual disappearance by 1930 but will reappear in the 1950s and 1960s.

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22 Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits". "Reds” (Communists)."Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators” (Communists). Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. 6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. No due process was followed Attorney General Mitchell Palmer

23 “undesirable”The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. Emergency Quota Act of 1921Immigration Act of 1924Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and Immigration Act of 1924 Kept out immigrants from southeastern Europe.

24 “undesirable”The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. Emergency Quota Act of 1921Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in Immigration Act of 1924Immigration Act of 1924, the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America.

25 Italian immigrants murderingNicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. anti-foreignismIn this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well. Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed.

26 was to reduce crime and poverty and improve the quality of lifeGoal: was to reduce crime and poverty and improve the quality of life by making it impossible for people to get their hands on alcohol. "Noble Experiment"This "Noble Experiment" was a failure. Midnight, January 16th, 1920, US went dry. 18th Amendment Volstead Act,The 18th Amendment, known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale and possession of alcohol in America. Prohibition lasted for thirteen years. bootlegging, speakeasies and Bathtub Gin.So was born the industry of bootlegging, speakeasies and Bathtub Gin.

27 drankPeople drank more than ever during Prohibition, and there were more deaths related to alcohol. flagrantlydecent law-abidingNo other law in America has been violated so flagrantly by so many "decent law-abiding" people. criminalsOvernight, many became criminals. Mobsters controlled liquor created a booming black market economy. Gangsters owned speakeasies and by 1925 there were over 100,000 speakeasies in New York City alone.

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30 1925 vs. The first conflict between religion vs. science being taught in school was in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee.

31 John T. Scopes Respected high school biology teacher arrested in Dayton, Tennessee for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. Clarence Darrow Famous trial lawyer who represented Scopes William J. Bryan Sec. of State for President Wilson, ran for president three times, turned evangelical leader. Represented the prosecution. Dayton, Tennessee Small town in the south became protective against the encroachment of modern times and secular teachings.

32 The trial is conducted in a carnival-like atmosphere. The people of Dayton are seen as ‘backward’ by the country. The right to teach and protect Biblical teachings in schools. The acceptance of science and that all species have evolved from lower forms of beings over billions of years.

33 Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting. Transmitted 100 watts on a wavelength of 360 meters. KDKA first broadcast was the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns on November 2, KDKA 220 stations eighteen months after KDKA took the plunge. $50 to $150 for first radios 3,000,000 homes had them by 1922.

34 $60 millionRadio sets, parts and accessories brought in $60 million in 1922… $136 million $136 million in 1923 $852 million$852 million in 1929 every third homeRadio reached into every third home in its first decade. Listening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925

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