Presentation on theme: "US - Life in the 1920s –Lifestyles of the 1920s –Post - WWI Tensions –Republican Leadership during the 1920s."— Presentation transcript:
US - Life in the 1920s –Lifestyles of the 1920s –Post - WWI Tensions –Republican Leadership during the 1920s
Role of Women Women won the right to vote: –19th Amendment, 1920 Change in fashion –“Flappers” –Short Skirts, short hairdos –Lipstick Change in the work place and leisure.
Prohibition 1917 - Congress passed the 18th Amendment –Ratified in 1919 “Bootlegging” Liquor “Speak-Easies” 1933 - Congress passed 21st Amendment –Ending Prohibition.
Sports Becomes a big Business/Entertainment “Heros” –Baseball: Babe Ruth & Ty Cobb –College Football –Boxing: Joe Dempsey
Movies & Film Motion Picture was a popular past time Movie stars as celebrities grew. –Movie studios began to market films to public’s choice Miss America pageant –Atlantic City, 1921 Douglas Fairbanks Clara Bow Lillian Gish Mary Pickford
“The Jazz Singer” 1927 musical film. 1st full length feature motion picture, using synchronized dialogue. “Talkies” film.
Air Travel 1927, First Trans- Atlantic Air Flight. Within 1 year, air travel grew 4x. Charles Lindbergh, 25 years old May 12, 1927. Flew from San Diego, CA to Long Island, NY (22 hours) May 20, 1927 Flew from Long Island, NY USA to Paris, France. (38 hours)
New Transportation 1920 - 9 million registered autos 1930 - 27 million registered autos –Tripled 1920 - 387,000 miles of roads 1929 - 662,000 miles of roads –Doubled 2009 - 6.1 Million miles Henry Ford & the assembly line production Auto industry employed 3.7 million people in 1929.
Industrial improvements of the 1920s focused on consumer goods: –Ice boxes, Autos, & radios Supermarkets were introduced: –Invention of cellophane Consumer Habits
End of WWI & Victory Parade WWI ends November, 1918 US Celebrates the victory with parades in NYC. 4+ million soldiers return home from being mobilized in the war
Strikes & Labor Unrest Strikes - workers refusal to work unless their demands are met. –Prices rose quickly, wages much more slowly –Unsafe, unfair business practices 1919 - 4 million workers went on strike. Famous strikes: –Boston Police Strike, 1919 –No. Indiana Steelworkers, 1919 –United Mine Workers Coal Mine Strike, 1919
“Red Summer” of 1919 1920, Car bombing, Wall Street, NYC Strikers were subject to hysteria, prone to begin riots. Fearful of pro socialist/communist actions against the American capitalist market system. Fearful of south & eastern European immigrants.
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer Appointed by President Woodrow Wilson. Responsible for the US’ 1st “Red Scare”. “Palmer raids” - rounded up Soviet immigrants, deported or detained them. Acts of government repression. ACLU founded by U. Sinclair & Jane Adams. –Provided legal assistance to victims of Palmer’s tactics.
Patriotic Americans saw a Red agitator behind union organizers and every labor protest. Anti Immigrant feelings were at an all time high. “Red Scare”
N. Vanetti & B. Sacco April 1920 - a robbery at a factory in So. Braintree, MA, –Resulted in two deaths 3 weeks later, these 2 Italian immigrants were arrested. –Known Anarchists and protesters of the “Palmer Raids”. Convicted based upon contradictory evidence and testimony. Honorable W. Thayer sentenced the accused to death. –Mass American and foreign protest did not change the verdict. Executed on Aug. 23, 1927 Claim - innocent victims of the “Red Scare”.
Ku Klux Klan in Washington D.C. 1925 - KKK march down Pennsylvania Ave. –40,000 man in attendance “Nativists - white Protestant men. Intolerant, Spread hate, Anti- immigrant (foreigners in general), black, Jew, Catholic. 1921 & 1924 - influenced Congress to pass legislation limiting immigration into the US.
Clarence Darrow & Scopes trial July, 1925. Dayton, Tennessee John Scopes was arrested and tried for teaching the theory of evolution. –Scientific theory of C. Darwin, cited by traditionalists as destroying faith in the Bible. ACLU hired C. Darrow, most famous attorney of the day, to defend Scopes. Took the case without pay. So called “monkey trial”
Republican Leadership in the White House With Warren G. Harding’s inauguration in 1920, began 12 years of Republican leadership in the Capitol. Presidents Harding, Coolidge & Hoover Examine their tenure in office and the issues the US faced during this era. Harding Hoover Coolidige
President Harding’s Cabinet was subjected to mismanagement & corruption. Most infamous case : –“Teapot Dome Scandal” 1921 - Albert B. Fall gained control of government oil fields & secretly leased them to private oil companies –Teapot Dome, Wyoming $125k & Hundreds of cattle were give in the form of a bribe. Conviction, 1 year in jail sentence. Albert B. Fall, Secretary of Interior
Vice President Coolidge swearing in. Warren G. Harding died August 2nd, 1923. –Harding was ill from eating tainted crabs while on a trip to Alaska & California. –He was also suffering from bronchial pneumonia. Calvin Coolidge, Harding’s VP was sworn into office on a farm in Vermont, by his father, a notary public at 2:30 am, August 3, 1923. –He was resworn the next day in Washington D.C. by a Supreme Court Justice. –He was on vacation with family during the summer of 1923.
President Coolidge kept most of the Harding Cabinet once he sworn is as President. –Secretary of Treasury: Andrew Mellon –Secretary of State: Charles Evan Hughes Main New appointee: Attorney General Harlan Fiske Stome. –Stowe was tasked with weeding out the “Ohio Gang” President Coolidge’s Cabinet
President Coolidge was a devote family man. –Enjoyed spending time with family vs. time with political leaders from around the country & the world. Averaged a 4-hour work day. He was one not to indulge in the extravagance of the 1920’s lifestyle. He was Pro business, as the US economy improved, Coolidge advocated more & more that government should be guided by business principles & practices. President Coolidge & family
Political cartoons like this depicted Coolidge’s opinion on running for reelection in the 1928 election. Coolidge refused the Republican party’s nomination for President. –Opened the way for Herbert Hoover. Coolidge, Mellon & Hoover 1924 - “Keep it Cool with Coolidge” Election of Coolidge, here with Secretary of Treasury Mellon & Secretary of Commerce, Hoover. All 3 men were pro business. –Industrial output DOUBLED during period 1921 - 1929 –Silent government/laissez-faire in its approach to US business.
Herbert Hoover Personal & Political views included: –Conservative –Pro-business –Advocate of small federal government –Belief in the individual Hoover campaigning in NYC at the Metropolis. –Self-made millionaire by 40 –Standford University graduate. “Rugged individualism” was his philosophy. –Through Hard work & diligence, the American Dream could be possible. Personified the Republican party base. –Midwestern, small-town Protestant white American voters.