Presentation on theme: "The Jazz Age 1920-1929. Section I: Time of Turmoil Essential Question: How did prejudice and labor strife affect the nation following World War I?"— Presentation transcript:
The Jazz Age
Section I: Time of Turmoil Essential Question: How did prejudice and labor strife affect the nation following World War I?
Fear of Radicalism Events after WWI made some Americans intolerant of immigrants and foreign ideas America was tired of war and wanted to return to normal life Therefore, skeptical of foreigners Russian Revolution Bolsheviks were attempting to overthrow the capitalist system Americans feared this was a threat
Fear of Radicalism (cont) The Red Scare Fear of “Reds” (Communists) Over 10,000 people arrested as suspected communists A few hundred deported Many released for lack of evidence Also included a fear of anarchists Believed there should be no government Sacco and Vanzetti Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants and anarchists Accused of killing 2 men during a robbery in Massachusetts Convicted and sentenced to death Some felt it was a prejudiced case against immigrants, others felt they were guilty
Labor and Racial Strife The 1920s brought increased labor unrest and racial tensions, often marked by violence. After WWI, industrial workers strike to get better wages Many Americans blamed Bolsheviks for American unrest Racial tensions were also increasing at this time
Labor Strife (cont) Sept. 1919, about 350,000 steel workers went on strike Demanded increase in wages and 8 hour work day Steel companies accused strikers of being “Red Agitators” Cost the strikers public support (forced the end of the strike) 18 strikers died in a riot in Gary, Indiana Boston police officers went on strike for the right to form a union This angered many Americans Governor at the time, Calvin Coolidge, sent out the National Guard to end the strike Resulted in the entire police force being fired Many workers did not join labor unions because they thought it was too radical Led to a sharp decline in union membership throughout the 1920s
A. Phillip Randolph Labor leader and Civil Rights Activist Worked tirelessly for more than a decade to win union recognition for his group Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Began to grow in the 1930s when the government began to encourage unions “Freedom is never given; it is won. And the negro people must win their freedom… This involves struggle, continuous struggle.” Helped organize the March on Washington with Martin Luther King Jr.
Racial Unrest In 1919, racial tensions led to violence More than 70 African Americans lynched in the South In Chicago, a riot broke out after a group of whites stoned an African American child swimming in Lake Michigan Boy drowned and set off the riots For 2 weeks, gangs roamed streets attacking each other and burning buildings Left 15 whites and 23 African Americans dead and more than 500 people injured African Americans turn to Marcus Garvey for answers Powerful leader who opposed integration Supported “Back to Africa” movement Program where African Americans would create their own country in Africa Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Section I Review Answer the following questions in your notes (I will include this in your notebook check): 1. What was the outcome of the Boston Police strike of 1919? 2. What was the UNIA? What was its purpose? 3. Why did Americans fear anarchists? What did Americans expect to happen? 4. How did prejudice and labor strife affect the nation following WWI? (paragraph)
Section 2: Desire for Normalcy Essential Question: In what ways did the election of Harding and Coolidge reflect America’s changing mood?
Harding and Coolidge The Harding and Coolidge administrations favored business and wanted a smaller government. Harding promised a return to “normalcy”, which was exactly what Americans wanted to hear Americans thought this would mean an end to foreign turmoil Harding and running mate, Coolidge, won by a landslide in 1920 (This was the first Presidential election where women could vote) Ran against James Cox (running mate FDR)
Scandals President Harding gave many government jobs to his buddies, nicknamed the Ohio Gang Many of these men were unqualified; some turned out to be corrupt Biggest scandal was the Teapot Dome Scandal involving Albert Fall, Secretary of the Interior In 1922, Fall leased government oil reserves in California and Wyoming to owners of 2 oil companies in exchange for over $400,000 Fall was convicted of bribery and became the first official cabinet member to go to prison Though President Harding was not personally involved in any of the scandals, it tarnished his presidency Harding took a trip to escape all of the mess and became ill, suffered a heart attack, and died while on that trip.