What is Total War? A conflict of unlimited scope in which a belligerent engages in a mobilization of all available resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise, in order to entirely destroy or render beyond use their rival's capacity to continue resistance. The practice of total war has been in use for centuries, but it was only in the middle to late 19 th century that total war was identified by scholars as a separate class of warfare. – In a total war, there is less (or no) differentiation between combatants and non-combatants (civilians) than in other conflicts, as nearly every person from a particular country (or opposing area), civilians and soldiers alike, can be considered to be part of this belligerent effort.civilians
War is HELL !! Massive Casualties & Death on the Battlefield
Australia   61,928 152,171 Belgium   42,987104,98744,686 Canada   64,94466,944149,732 France   1,397,8001,697,8004,266,000 India   74,187 69,214 Italy   651,0101,240,010953,886 Romania   250,000680,000120,000 Russia   1,811,0003,311,0004,950,000 Serbia   275,000725,000133,148 United Kingdom   885,138994,1381,663,435 United States   116,708117,465205,690 Total (Entente Powers) 5,696,05610,353,81312,809,280 Entente PowersMilitary Deaths Total Deaths hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh h Military Wounded
Central PowersMilitary DeathsTotal Deaths Military Wounded Austria-Hungary   1,100,0001,567,0003,620,000 Bulgaria   87,500187,500152,390 Germany   2,036,8972,462,8974,247,143 Ottoman Empire   800,0005,000,000400,000 Total Total (Central Powers) 4,024,3979,415,3978,419,533
The War Brings Destruction to Europe Avoncourt, France
The War brings forth mass destruction to civilians
Women Make Great Strides The war drew more than 1 million women into the U.S. workforce & took a variety of jobs such as: – Factory jobs – Operators & Secretaries – Nurses & Teachers – Public Works Jobs – Military & Law Enforcement jobs Women’s new role helped Women gained the right to vote: – 19 th Amendment (1920)
Women Face Setbacks Post-war recession made jobs scarce As men returned home from the war, many women lost their jobs – Most women return to domestic duties in the home – Those women who remain employed were paid less & treated differently than their male counterparts
The Impact of the War: New Opportunities & Problems Faced by African- Americans
African-Americans Make Significant Gains African-Americans serve in the military during the war Great Migration – African-Americans move to northern cities & find economic opportunities
African-Americans Face Hardships African-Americans experience discrimination once veterans returned from the war – Competition for jobs & housing – Resurgence of the KKK Racial Tensions Increased & led to violence – Chicago Race Riot (1919) African American soldiers were segregated and trained in separate camps. Many white officers and southern politicians feared African Americans would pose a threat after the war so only trained a few black regiments.
The Impact of the War: Immigration During WWI and in Post-War America
Restricting Immigration During WWI 1917: Congress enacts a literacy requirement for immigrants over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. – The law requires immigrants to be able to read 40 words in some language. – The law also specifies that immigration is prohibited from Asia, except from Japan and the Philippines. – The law also imposed a literacy test and aliens who were unable to meet the minimum mental moral, physical, and economic standards were excluded, as were anarchists and other subversives, from the U.S. 1917-1924: A series of laws were enacted to further limit the number of new immigrants. These laws established the quota system and imposed passport requirements. They expanded the categories of excludable aliens and banned all Asians except Japanese. 1918: Congress passes the Anarchist Act of 1918 which expands the provisions for the exclusion of subversive aliens.
Immigration in Post-War America Americans become distrustful of immigrants in fear of rise of anarchy, socialism, & communism – Nativism prompts Americans to discriminate against immigrant groups – Immigrant groups targeted by government & deported (suspected anarchists or socialists) Returning veterans competed for jobs with immigrants (immigrants lost their jobs) – Facing discrimination and violence, many immigrants return home 1917: Congress enacts a literacy requirement for immigrants over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. – The law requires immigrants to be able to read 40 words in some language. – The law also specifies that immigration is prohibited from Asia, except from Japan and the Philippines. The Immigration Act of 1917 not only expanded the classes of foreigners excluded from the U.S., but created the Asiatic Barred Zone, a geographical region covering most of eastern Asia and the Pacific islands from which no immigrants were to be admitted into the U.S. The law also imposed a literacy test and aliens who were unable to meet the minimum mental moral, physical, and economic standards were excluded, as were anarchists and other subversives, from the U.S. † A series of laws were enacted to further limit the number of new immigrants. These laws established the quota system and imposed passport requirements. They expanded the categories of excludable aliens and banned all Asians except Japanese. *
Restricting Immigration After WWI 1921: Quota Act Limited annual European immigration to 3 % of the number of a nationality group in the United States in 1910. 1923: Cable Act Partially repeals the Expatriation Act, but declares that an American woman who marries an Asian still loses her citizenship. 1923: United States vs. Bhaghat Singh Thind In this landmark case, the Supreme Court ruled that Indians from the Asian subcontinent could not become naturalized U.S. citizens. 1924: Johnson-Reed Act Limited annual European immigration to 2 % of the number of nationality group in the United States in 1890.
Restricting Immigration After WWI 1924: Oriental Exclusion Act Prohibited most immigration from Asia, including foreign- born wives and children of U.S. citizens of Chinese ancestry. 1924: Quota Systems Changed Quotas based on the desirability of various nationalities For example, immigrants from northern and western Europe were consider much more desirable than those of southern and eastern Europe and more adapt to "fit in." Consequently, countries like Great Britain, Germany, and Ireland were given generous quotas, while nations like Russia, the source of most Jewish immigrants, and Italy were cut back. Almost all Asian were excluded from the U.S.
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Post-war labor unrest: Coal Miners Strike of 1919. Steel Strike of 1919. Boston Police Strike of 1919.
Anti-LaborAnti-Labor “If Capital & Labor Don’t Pull Together” – Chicago Tribune
Consequences of Labor Unrest “While We Rock the Boat” – Washington Times
The Impact of the War: The Boom & Bust of the Post-War Economy
America Faces Post-War Economic Problems WWI devastated European economies, giving the U.S. the economic lead. The U.S. still faced problems such as inflation, which left people struggling to afford ordinary items. Farmers, whose goods were less in demand than during the war, were hit hard. – Prices of farm goods (corn, wheat, cotton) rose dramatically – Farmers had difficult time paying off debts and buying essential equipment for next growing season During the war, inflation was kept in check. – Following the war, consumers raced to buy consumer goods instead of buying war bonds. A scarcity of goods coupled with widespread demand, caused mass inflation Industrial workers also felt pain of inflation – Wages didn’t increase with increase in price of consumer goods & services (rents) – 20 % (more than 4 million workers) went on strike for higher wages & shorter work days Even Boston Police Department went on strike
Coal Miners’ Strike - 1919 “Keeping Warm” – Los Angeles Times
Steel Strike - 1919 “Coming Out of the Smoke” – New York World
The “Red Scare” “What a Year Has Brought Forth” – NY World
“Red Scare” -- Anti-Bolshevism “Put Them Out & Keep Them Out” – Philadelphia Inquirer
Boston Police Strike - 1919 “He gives aid & comfort to the enemies of society” – Chicago Tribune
Boston Police Strike - 1919 “Striking Back” – New York Evening World
Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 1919 - 3 rd International goal promote worldwide communism. Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case Against the Reds): He stated his belief that Communism was "eating its way into the homes of the American workman," and that socialists were responsible for most of the country's social problems. Palmer Raids - 1920 “The First Red Scare”:
Congressman Victor Berger (WI) Born in Austria-Hungary, he settled in Milwaukee in 1891 – He taught school before becoming a prominent newspaper editor. He was one of the founders of the American Socialist movement, particularly popular in Milwaukee. In 1910, he became the first Socialist ever elected to the U.S. Congress.
A. Mitchell Palmer: Attorney General Served as Attorney General from March 5, 1919, until March 4, 1921. – One of Palmer's first acts was to release 10,000 aliens of German ancestry taken into custody during the war. – Before assuming office, he had opposed some of the actions of the American Protective League, which had participated in numerous raids and surveillance activities, Actions directed primarily against those who failed to register for the draft, but also against immigrants of German ancestry who were suspected of sympathies for the German Kaiser and his government.
A. Mitchell Palmer: Attorney General However, the APL had also directed its attention to anarchists and their sympathizers in the Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W.), who were intensely opposed to the U.S. entry into World War I. – Palmer initially ignored demands by the press and congressional leaders for federal arrests and/or deportation of radical or revolutionary activists and agitators. – The new Attorney General's lack of response was criticized by various political leaders and former APL members, as well as journals such as the New York Times – NYT editorials had characterized striking immigrants who had joined anarchist movements as "seditionaries, anarchists, plotters against the Government of the United States"
A. Mitchell Palmer & the Palmer Raids Convinced that the menace posed by anarchists and the radical left was real, and armed with a clear mandate for action from President Wilson, Palmer became a zealous opponent of anarchist communists, insurrectionary anarchists, and other radicals who advocated revolution and/or the violent overthrow of the Federal government of the United States.
“Red Scare” – Palmer Raids A. Mitchell Palmer’s Home Bombed, 1920 In late April 1919, Galleanists, violent anarchist followers of Luigi Galleani mailed a booby trap bomb to Palmer's home; it was intercepted and defused. Three months after becoming Attorney General, Palmer narrowly escaped death when Carlo Valdinoci, a Galleanist and anarchist placed a bomb on Palmer's porch; the bomb went off and killed Valdinoci. Palmer had been home at the time of the explosion, with his wife and child recently put to bed, though he and his family were not harmed from the blast.
A. Mitchell Palmer & the Palmer Raids Palmer's campaign against radicalism culminated in what came to be called the Palmer Raids and the commencement of what would later be termed the First Red Scare. – These were a series of police roundups, warrantless wiretaps (authorized under the Sedition Act), and mass arrests of suspected leftists and radicals, during which a total of at least 10,000 individuals were arrested. – Under the 1918 Anarchist Exclusion Act, which allowed the deportation of resident aliens who were anarchists or who had advocated violence or the revolutionary overthrow of the government, 556 resident aliens were eventually deported, including prominent radical leaders such as Luigi Galleani, Emma Goldman, and Alexander Berkman. Fearful of extremist violence and revolution, the American public widely supported the raids; outside of protests by some civil libertarian groups and the radical left, condemnation of the raids did not surface until many years later.Anarchist Exclusion Act
The Palmer Raids Under the 1918 Anarchist Exclusion Act, which allowed the deportation of resident aliens who were anarchists or who had advocated violence or the revolutionary overthrow of the government, 556 resident aliens were eventually deported, including prominent radical leaders such as: – Luigi Galleani, Emma Goldman, and Alexander Berkman. Fearful of extremist violence and revolution, the American public widely supported the raids; outside of protests by some civil libertarian groups and the radical left, condemnation of the raids did not surface until many years later.
American View of European Anarchists This cartoon, published in the Memphis Commercial Appeal in 1919 depicts a monstrous "European Anarchist" seeking to blow up the Statue of Liberty.Statue of Liberty
Sacco & Vanzetti Background Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were two Italian-born laborers and anarchists – Arrested in connection to the 1920 armed robbery and murder of a pay-clerk and a security guard in Braintree, Massachusetts. – Both tried, convicted and executed via electrocution on August 23, 1927 Sacco & Vanzetti (in handcuffs)
Sacco & Vanzetti Background Sacco: a shoe-maker born in Torremaggiore, Foggia, who immigrated to the United States at 17. Vanzetti: a fishmonger born in Villafalletto, Cuneo, who arrived in the United States at 20. – Both men arrived in the U.S. in 1908, although they did not meet until mid- 1917. Both men were followers of Luigi Galleani, an Italian anarchist who advocated revolutionary violence, including bombing and assassination. Sacco & Vanzetti
Sacco & Vanzetti: The Trial Both men are believed to have been involved at some level in the Galleanist bombing campaign, although their precise roles have not been determined. In particular, the Galleanist's chief bombmaker, Mario Buda, reportedly told a friend in 1955, "Sacco c'era" (Sacco was there). This fact could account for their suspicious activities and behavior on the night of their arrest, May 5, 1920. The judge in the case, Webster Thayer, allegedly stated to the jury "This man, (Vanzetti) although he may not have actually committed the crime attributed to him, is nevertheless culpable, because he is the enemy of our existing institutions.“ – There is no record of this statement in the full trial transcript. Sacco & Vanzetti
Why Target Sacco & Vanzetti? With circumstantial evidence found and inconsistent testimonies, why were these two men targeted? What political motivations could the government (and the judge) have in securing a conviction in this case? Sacco & Vanzetti (in handcuffs)
Appealing the Conviction & Protesting the Sacco & Vanzetti Execution Appeals, protests, and denials continued for the next 6 years. – While the prosecution staunchly defended the verdict, the defense, led by radical attorney Fred Moore, dug up many possible reasons for doubt. – 3 key prosecution witnesses stated that they had been coerced into identifying Sacco at the scene of the crime. But when confronted by DA Katzmann, each changed their stories again, denying any coercion. Other appeals focused on the jury foreman and a prosecution ballistics expert. – In 1923, the defense filed an affidavit from a friend of the jury foreman who swore that prior to the trial, the man had said of Sacco and Vanzetti, "Damn them, they ought to hang them anyway!" On April 8, 1927, their appeals exhausted, Sacco and Vanzetti were finally sentenced to death in the electric chair. A worldwide outcry arose and Governor Alvin T. Fuller finally agreed to postpone the executions and set up a committee to reconsider the case. Why would there be an international outcry against the conviction and impending execution of Sacco & Vanzetti? 1921 Protest in London, England
The funeral of Sacco and Vanzetti, Boston 1927 The Aftermath of the Sacco & Vanzetti Execution August 23, 1927 Sacco & Vanzetti were executed in Massachusetts on August 23, 1927 for their role in the 1920 murder of the pay clerk in Braintree, Massachusetts On December 24, 1927, the headquarters of the Citibank and of the Bank of Boston in Buenos Aires were blown up by the Italian anarchist Severino Di Giovanni, in apparent protest of the execution. – Di Giovanni, one of the most vocal supporters of Sacco and Vanzetti in Argentina, had already bombed the U.S. embassy in Buenos Aires a few hours after Sacco and Vanzetti were condemned. – Later, Di Giovanni and his comrades would unsuccessfully attempt to bomb the train in which president Herbert Hoover travelled during his stay in Argentina, in December 1928.
The Aftermath of the Sacco & Vanzetti Execution Fellow Galleanists did not take news of the executions with equanimity. One or more followers of Galleani, especially Mario Buda, were suspected as the perpetrators of the infamous and deadly Wall Street bombing of 1920 after the two men were initially indicted. – At the funeral parlor in Hanover Street, a wreath announced Aspettando l'ora di vendetta (Awaiting the hour of vengeance). Anarchists in other countries had been conducting a campaign of violent retaliation ever since the mens' indictment. – In 1921, a booby trap bomb mailed to the American ambassador in Paris exploded, wounding his valet. – Other bombs sent to American embassies were defused. – In 1926, Samuel Johnson, the brother of the man who had called police the night of Sacco and Vanzetti's arrest (Simon Johnson), had his house destroyed by a bomb.
The Aftermath of the Execution of Sacco & Vanzetti Following the sentencing of Sacco and Vanzetti in 1927, a package bomb addressed to Governor Fuller was intercepted in the Boston post office. Three months later, bombs exploded in the New York subway, in a Philadelphia church, and at the home of the mayor of Baltimore. One of the jurors in the Dedham trial had his house bombed, throwing him and his family from their beds. Less than a year after the executions, a bomb destroyed the front porch of the home of executioner Robert Elliott. As late as 1932, Judge Thayer himself was the victim of an attempted assassination when his home was wrecked in a bomb blast. – Afterwards, Thayer lived permanently at his club in Boston, guarded 24 hours a day until his death.
The Sacco & Vanzetti Controversy: The Mystery Continues Today Today, the case continues to incite controversy based on questions regarding culpability, the question of the innocence or guilt of Sacco and Vanzetti, and conformance, the question of whether the trials were fair to Sacco and Vanzetti. On August 23, 1977, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis signed a proclamation declaring, "Any stigma and disgrace should be forever removed from the names of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. We are not here to say whether these men are guilty or innocent. We are here to say that the high standards of justice, which we in Massachusetts take such pride in, failed Sacco and Vanzetti." Sacco & Vanzetti
The Lasting Effects of World War I: What are the Unresolved Issues & Home and Abroad?
The 1920 Election Woodrow Wilson originally tried to run for a 3 rd term – He lost the Democratic Party’s nomination – Wilson supported Democratic Candidate James M. Cox of Ohio If Cox won, Wilson was convinced it would prove that Americans supported his vision of peace and the League of Nations – Election of Warren G. Harding served as the final rejection of the League of Nation Harding ran on platform rejecting both Wilson’s idealism & joining the League of Nations He campaigned on a “Return to Normalcy” – Republicans also won majority in Congress, which proved Americans wanted to take a different path in foreign affairs and isolate themselves from European affairs/wars
Political Issues The 1920 Presidential & Congressional elections signaled that Americans rejected Wilson’s vision for the future Americans wanted to return to “normalcy” The United States withdrew from the world by refusing to join the League of Nations and retreat to a policy of isolationism Economic Issues The United States became an economic giant and emerges as the richest nation in the world U.S. becomes a creditor nation, meaning that foreign nations owed the U.S. more money than it owed them World War I shifted the economic center of the world from London to New York City The U.S.“Returns to Normalcy” & Adjusts to the New World Order Social Issues Many women lost their jobs once veterans returned Many African- Americans lost their jobs once veterans returned & experienced harsh treatment and discrimination Distrust for immigrants breeds Nativism & restriction of immigration
The New Europe: – German & Russian monarchies toppled and new governments created (Russia becomes a Communist nation U.S.S.R.) – Austria-Hungary & Ottoman Empire ceased to exist & new countries and mandates created (European nationalism still alive) – Britain & France victorious, but economically & politically weakened Too Many Unresolved Issues Lead to World War II: – Too much anger and hostility remained among nations. – Germany: humiliation for war-guilt clause and reparations crippled its economy & bred resentment for the Allies – Russia: Angry for exclusion from peace talks and vows to seek revenge for being punished and for losing territory – Instability in Middle Eastern & African mandates & colonies cause problems for European nations – League of Nations: Because the U.S. didn’t join the League, it proved to be weak, ineffective, and failed to keep peace The World Adjusts to a New Order & Unresolved Issues…