Presentation on theme: "The 1920’s Red Scare. Anarchism The doctrine that government is an unnecessary evil All government should be replaced by voluntary cooperation among individuals."— Presentation transcript:
The 1920’s Red Scare
Anarchism The doctrine that government is an unnecessary evil All government should be replaced by voluntary cooperation among individuals and groups.
Communism A political, economic, and social theory, also known as Marxism- Leninism, that is based on a collective society All land and capital are owned by the government The government has absolute power over all aspects of life.
The Soviet Union Emerges Russia was transformed into the Soviet Union in 1917, a Communist state Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks and overthrew the democratic Kerensky government of Russia He was a follower of the Marxist doctrine of social equality A Communist party was formed in Ameri ca, too Lenin
“Red Scare” -Anti-Bolshevism “Put Them Out & Keep Them Out” – Philadelphia Inquirer
The “Red Scare” “What a Year Has Brought Forth” – NY World
SACCO & VANZETTI The Red Scare fed nativism in America Italian anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti were a shoemaker and a fish peddler Convicted of robbery and murder despite flimsy evidence, their execution was symbolic of discrimination against radical beliefs during the Red Scare
THE KLAN RISES AGAIN As the Red Scare and anti- immigrant attitudes reached a peak, the KKK was more popular than ever By 1924, the Klan had 4.5 million members
Post-war labor unrest: Coal Miners Strike of 1919. Steel Strike of 1919. Boston Police Strike of 1919. Evidence of a Communist Plot?
Coal Miners’ Strike - 1919 “Keeping Warm” – Los Angeles Times
Boston Police Strike - 1919 “He gives aid & comfort to the enemies of society” – Chicago Tribune
Steel Strike - 1919 “Coming Out of the Smoke” – New York World
Consequences of Labor Unrest: Union Membership Declines “While We Rock the Boat” – Washington Times Why? Workers easily replaced by immigrants willing to work in poor conditions for low wages Multilingual immigrants difficult to organize into unions Farmers who migrated to cities uncomfortable with unions-used to self-reliance Unions excluded Blacks
Anti-LaborAnti-Labor “If Capital & Labor Don’t Pull Together” – Chicago Tribune
The 1920 Election
Immigration Restrictions- 1920’s
Emergency Quota Act of 1921 In the Emergency Quota Act, Congress passed a new type of immigration law. It limited the number of immigrants entering the United States in any one year to 3 percent of the size of each nationality group that had been living in the United States in 1910. This policy favored the older Anglo-Saxon and northern European stock
Immigration Act of 1924 The Immigration Act of 1924 created a permanent quota The new law cut the quota for northern and western European countries by 29 percent, but slashed that for southern and eastern Europe by 87 percent. Italy's quota, for example, was reduced from 42,057 to 3,845 persons. The quota system did not apply to countries in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Mexico). Quotas were not repealed until the 1960’s