I. Postwar America A.Americans fearful of outsiders = nativism – prejudice against foreign born people. B. Belief in isolationism (policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs) also divided Americans.
. C. Fear of Communism – economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship, in which wealth and power are equalized, private property is eliminated and the gov., owns all factories, railroads, and other businesses.
C. Fear of Communism – cont. 1.) Red Scare Anti-communist panic began in 1919 after the Russian Revolution called out for worldwide revolution and the abolishment of capitalism. A Communist party formed in the U.S. and Americans feared that communism was spreading to the U.S. - dozens of bombs were mailed to gov. and business leaders.
THE RUSSIAN BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION IN 1917 LED TO WIDE SCALE FEAR IN THE U.S. THAT COMMUNISTS WOULD TRY TO TAKE OVER THE COUNTRY
RED SCARE EVENTS IN RUSSIA AND EUROPE AND MASSIVE STRIKES AT HOME LED TO A FEAR THAT THE U.S. WOULD BE THE NEXT TARGET OF COMMUNISTS
1.) Red Scare – cont. - U.S. Attorney General Mitchell Palmer went on a communist hunt! - Palmer Raids - Assisted by J. Edgar Hoover, Palmer hunted down suspected communists, anarchists, and socialists. - they trampled civil rights, invaded homes and offices and jailed suspects w/out legal counsel. - hundreds of foreign-born radicals were deported w/out trials. - failed to find evidence of revolutionary conspiracies!!!
AS A RESULT OF THE PALMER RAIDS HUNDREDS OF IMMIGRANTS WERE FORCIBLY DEPORTED TO THEIR HOME COUNTRIES “SHIP OR SHOOT”
2.) Sacco and Vanzetti Case - Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, a shoemaker and a fish peddler, both Italian immigrants and anarchists; both evaded the draft. - 1920 arrested and charged with robbery and murder of two workers. - witnesses said criminals “looked” Italian - Sacco and Vanzetti claimed their innocence and provided alibis, evidence was circumstantial and judge made prejudicial remarks. - Jury found them guilty and sentenced them to death! - protests rang out and many believed they were mistreated because of their beliefs. - 1961 ballistics showed that the pistol found on Sacco was the one used in the murder
DESPITE MASSIVE PROTESTS AROUND THE GLOBE SACCO AND VANZETTI WERE EXECUTED IN AUGUST OF 1927 THE FUNERALDEATH MASKS
FEAR OF OUTSIDE INFLUENCES LED TO RESTRICTIONS ON IMMIGRATION
D. Limiting Immigration – fear of outside influence led to restrictions on immigration 1.) Emergency Quota Act of 1921 established a maximum number of people who could enter the U.S. from each foreign country - goal was to cut European immigration - law prohibited Japanese immigration - quota system did not apply to immigrants from the Western Hemisphere – during the 1920s about 1 million Canadians and 500,000 Mexicans crossed into the U.S.
2.) Hate groups formed as a result of the Red Scare and anti-immigrant feelings - Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was devoted to “100 percent Americanism” - 4.5 million members by 1924, only “white male persons, native-born gentile citizens.” - targeted African Americans, Roman Catholics, Jews and foreign-born people.
EXTREME FEAR OF FOREIGN INFLUENCES BREEDS HATRED
THE KLAN SHOW ITS POWER AND STRENGTH BY ORGANIZING A MARCH IN WASHINGTON D.C. IN 1925 50,000 KU KLUX KLAN MEMBERS MARCHING BY AUGUST OF 1925 THE KLAN HAD 5 MILLION MEMBERS AND CONTROLLED THE SEVERAL STATE GOVERNMENTS
ANTI SEMITISM IN THE 1920s LEO FRANK, JEWISH BUSINESSMAN, WAS LYNCHED IN ATLANTA IN 1915 FOR A CRIME HE DID NOT COMMIT "THE IMMEDIATE OBJECT OF THE LEAGUE IS TO STOP, BY APPEALS TO REASON AND CONSCIENCE AND, IF NECESSARY, BY APPEALS TO LAW, THE DEFAMATION OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE. ITS ULTIMATE PURPOSE IS TO SECURE JUSTICE AND FAIR TREATMENT TO ALL CITIZENS ALIKE AND TO PUT AN END FOREVER TO UNJUST AND UNFAIR DISCRIMINATION AGAINST AND RIDICULE OF ANY SECT OR BODY OF CITIZENS." ADL CHARTER OCTOBER 1913 LOGO FROM: www.adl.org ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE FOUNDED, 1913
THE NAACP, WHICH WAS FOUNDED IN 1909, REFUSED TO BE INTIMIDATED BY THE KLAN. THEY HELD THEIR ANNUAL CONFERENCE IN 1920 IN ATLANTA, ONE OF THE MOST ACTIVE KLAN AREAS AT THE TIME. TWO YEARS LATER, THE NAACP PLACED LARGE ADS IN MAJOR NEWSPAPERS TO PRESENT THE FACTS ABOUT LYNCHING. THIS CARTOON SHOWS THE ANTI-LYNCHING BILLS BEING PUT OFF BY CONGRESS. THE NAACP LOBBIED CONGRESS UNSUCCESSFULLY FOR LEGISLATION. LOGO FROM www.naacp.org
E. Labor Unrest - During the war strikes were illegal because they would interfere with the war effort. - 1919 – there were more than 3,000 strikes and 4 million workers walked off the job - Employers did not want to give raises or allow their workers to join unions. - Employers labeled striking workers Communists.
E. Labor Unrest – continued 1.)Boston Police Strike - grievances =no raise since start of the war, not allowed to unionize - representatives asked for a raise and were fired = strike - Mass. Governor Calvin Coolidge called out the Nat’l Guard and ended the strike - strikers weren’t allowed to return to work and new police officers were hired.
E. Labor Unrest – cont. 2.)Steel Mill Strike 1919 - steel workers wanted right to negotiate for shorter hours and higher wages. - U.S. Steel Corporation refused to meet with union reps. - 300,000 workers walked off the job - steel companies hired strikebreakers = employees who agreed to work during the strike - striking workers were beaten by police, federal troops and state militia - when negotiations deadlocked, Pres. Wilson issued a plea to the strikers - Strike ended in 1920
“At a time when the nations of the world are endeavoring to find a way of avoiding war, are we to confess that there is no method to be found for carrying on industry except … the very method of war?... Are our industrial leaders and our industrial workers to live together without faith in each other?” Woodrow Wilson
E. Labor Unrest – cont. 3.)Labor Movement loses appeal in the 1920s because: - Most of the work force consisted of immigrants willing to work in poor conditions. - unions had difficulty organizing - most unions excluded African Americans
1919 CARTOONS ON THE WAVE OF STRIKES SWEEPING THE U.S.
WARREN HARDING TWENTY-NINTH PRESIDENT 1921-1923 BORN: NOVEMBER 2, 1865 IN CORSICA, OHIO DIED: AUGUST 2, 1923 DURING HIS PRESIDENCY WHILE VISITING SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
BEFORE HIS NOMINATION, WARREN G. HARDING DECLARED, "AMERICA'S PRESENT NEED IS NOT HEROICS, BUT HEALING; NOT NOSTRUMS, BUT NORMALCY; NOT REVOLUTION, BUT RESTORATION; NOT AGITATION, BUT ADJUSTMENT; NOT SURGERY, BUT SERENITY; NOT THE DRAMATIC, BUT THE DISPASSIONATE; NOT EXPERIMENT, BUT EQUIPOISE; NOT SUBMERGENCE IN INTERNATIONALITY, BUT SUSTAINMENT IN TRIUMPHANT NATIONALITY...." Harding speaking
II. Presidential Policies A. Warren G. Harding - took office in 1921 - Called for a return to “Normalcy” 1.) Peace/Foreign Policy: - 1921 – Harding calls a conference in Washington DC where the U.S., Great Britain, France, Japan, and Italy all agree to reduce their navies. - 1928 – 15 countries sign the Kellogg- Briand Pact which renounced war as an instrument of national policy (pact was futile and was not enforced)
2.) Tariff and Reparations: - Conflict arose when Great Britain and France were asked to pay back the $10 million they owed the U.S. - they could do this by, selling goods to the U.S. or collecting war reparations from Germany - However, in 1922, the Fordney-McCumber Tariff was passed raising taxes on imported goods by 60% - Britain and France could not afford to sell enough goods to repay the debt. - GB and France looked to Germany who could not pay = France marches into Germany
2.) Tariffs and Reparations – cont. - U.S. wants to avoid war - American banker Charles G. Dawes is sent to negotiate loans. - Dawes Plan = U.S. loans Germany $2.5 billion to repay Great Britain and France, Great Britain and France then pay the U.S. - caused resentment b/c Britain and France thought the U.S. was stingy for not paying a fair share of the cost of the war and the U.S. had benefitted from the defeat of Germany while Europeans lost millions of lives. - U.S. considered GB and France financially irresponsible.
3.) Scandal - Harding appointed his poker-playing cronies, known as the Ohio-gang, to important cabinet positions - Harding’s administration soon unraveled b/c his corrupt friends used their offices to become wealthy through graft. - Charles Forbes, head of veterans affairs, illegally sold government and hospital supplies to private companies. - Thomas Miller, head of the Office of Alien Property, caught taking a bribe.
3.) Scandal – cont. - Teapot Dome Scandal - gov. had set aside oil-rich land in Teapot Dome Wyoming, and Elks Hills, California, for use by the U.S. Navy. - Sec. of the Interior, Albert B. Fall managed to get the oil reserves transferred from the navy to the Interior Department. - Fall then secretly leased the land to 2 private oil companies and received more than $400,000 in “loans, bonds, and cash.” - Fall was found guilty of bribery and became the 1 st American to be convicted of a felony while holding a cabinet position.
HARDING’S ADMINISTRATION WAS ROCKED BY SCANDALS. HE SAID, OF THE FRIENDS HE HAD APPOINTED TO HIGH OFFICE, "MY GOD, THIS IS A HELL OF A JOB! I HAVE NO TROUBLE WITH MY ENEMIES... BUT MY DAMNED FRIENDS... THEY’RE THE ONES THAT KEEP ME WALKING THE FLOOR NIGHTS." THREE MAJOR SCANDALS: 1. IN THE VETERANS' BUREAU 2. IN THE OFFICE OF THE ALIEN PROPERTY CUSTODIAN 3. IN THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND JUSTICE.
4.) Harding’s Death - August 2, 1923 Harding dies suddenly - Vice President Calvin Coolidge takes office just as the scandals from Harding’s administration come to light.
B. Calvin Coolidge’s Presidency 1.) Assumes office in 1923 upon Harding’s death 2.) Won the election of 1924 3.) Goals: - keep taxes down, business profits up, keep government interference in business to a minimum and allow private enterprise to flourish. 4.) Coolidge’s admin. placed high tariffs on foreign imports, which helped American manufacturers. 5.) Wages rose!!
PRESIDENT COOLIDGE: 1923-1929 “THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA IS BUSINESS" COOLIDGE WAS THE LEAST ACTIVE PRESIDENT IN HISTORY, TAKING DAILY AFTERNOON NAPS AND PROPOSING NO NEW LEGISLATION "CIVILIZATION AND PROFITS GO HAND IN HAND"
A. The Automobile changed the American landscape 1.) Led to the construction of paved roads 2.) Construction of Route 66 led to settlement out west 3.) Architectural styles of homes changed b/c people needed garages = smaller lawns 4.) Construction of gas stations, repair shops, motels, tourist camps, shopping centers 5.) First automatic traffic signals, underwater tunnels for vehicles 6.) connected rural families to the cities 7.) allowed families to vacation in new, faraway places
8.) allowed workers to live miles from their jobs = urban sprawl – cities spread in all directions. 9.) auto industry provided an economic base for many cities like Akron, Ohio and Flint, Michigan 10.) auto industry symbolized the success of the free enterprise system 11.) planned obsolescence – manufacturing concept which calls for slight changes in style to be made periodically in order to encourage customers to discard old models and buy newer ones. (By the late 1920s, 80% of all registered vehicles in the world were in the U.S.)
THE AUTOMOBILE, ELECTRICITY AND HOUSING INDUSTRIES WERE THE MAJOR FACTORS FUELING THE ECONOMIC “BOOM” OF THE 1920s
HENRY FORD, THE MAN WHO REVOLUTIONIZED MANUFACTURING BY MECHANIZING THE ASSEMBLY LINE MODE OF PRODUCTION IN 1925 FORD WAS PRODUCING NEW MODEL T’S AT THE RATE OF ONE EVERY TEN SECONDS.
$265 =$2742 IN 2002 DOLLARS $685.00 =$7089.00 IN 2002 DOLLARS $775.00 =$7863.00 ON 2002 DOLLARS
INADEQUATE PARKING AND ROADS WERE APPARENT BY THE MID 1920s
B. Airplane Industry - Transatlantic flights by Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart helped promote cargo and commercial airlines. - 1927 the Lockheed Company produced a single-engine plane called the Vega which became the most popular transport airplanes in the 1920s. - 1927 – Pan American Airlines was founded and inaugurated the first transatlantic passenger flights
C. Standard of Living Soars - 1920-1929 – Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth - average annual income rose more than 35% - from $522-$705 – people were eager to spend their extra money 1.) Electricity spread from cities to suburbs and created new electric appliances 2.) Modern advertising emerged as companies hired psychologists to study how to appeal to people.
ADVERTISING BECAME THE VEHICLE TO SELL MASS CULTURE
1930’S HOME FURNISHINGS WITH INSTALLMENT (CREDIT) PRICES
D. A Superficial Prosperity - growing gap between rich and poor - farmers suffered because of overproduction during WWI. - installment plans (credit) – allowed people to buy goods over an extended period w/out putting much money down at the time of purchase. - most Americans focused on the present and didn’t believe anything could go wrong with the economy!
E. Prohibition 1.) January 1920 the 18 th Amendment went into effect prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages. 2.) Volstead Act established the Prohibition Bureau in the Treasury Department. - agency was underfunded and the job of patrolling the sale and distribution of alcohol nationwide was left up to a few individuals. 3.) To obtain liquor illegally, people went to hidden saloons and nightclubs called speakeasies because when inside you one spoke quietly or “easily” to avoid detection. 4.) People also bought liquor from bootleggers (named for the practice of carrying liquor strapped to your boots) who smuggled liquor from other countries.
CARRY NATION, A LEADING ACTIVIST OF THE ANTI- TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
AMENDMENT XVIII SECTION 1. AFTER ONE YEAR FROM THE RATIFICATION OF THIS ARTICLE THE MANUFACTURE, SALE, OR TRANSPORTATION OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS WITHIN, THE IMPORTATION THEREOF INTO, OR THE EXPORTATION THEREOF FROM THE UNITED STATES AND ALL TERRITORY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF FOR BEVERAGE PURPOSES IS HEREBY PROHIBITED. SECTION 2. THE CONGRESS AND THE SEVERAL STATES SHALL HAVE CONCURRENT POWER TO ENFORCE THIS ARTICLE BY APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION. SECTION 3. THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE INOPERATIVE UNLESS IT SHALL HAVE BEEN RATIFIED AS AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, AS PROVIDED IN THE CONSTITUTION, WITHIN SEVEN YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THE SUBMISSION HEREOF TO THE STATES BY THE CONGRESS. THE 18 TH AMENDMENT, 1919, MADE PROHIBITION THE LAW OF THE LAND
THE 18 TH AMENDMENT WAS ENFORCED BY THE VOLSTEAD ACT CONGRESSMAN ANDREW VOLSTEAD
A MAJOR EFFECT OF PROHIBITION WAS THE RISE OF CRIMINAL ORGANIZATIONS FORMED TO SATISFY THE DEMANDS OF AMERICANS WHO DECIDED THEY WANTED LIQUOR IN SPITE OF THE 18 TH AMENDMENT AND VOLSTEAD ACT.
5.) Prohibition contributed to organized crime in every major city 6.) Al Capone – famous gangster whose bootlegging empire brought in $60 million a year - Capone killed off his competition and 1920s headlines reported 522 bloody gang killings 7.) By mid- 1920s only 19% of Americans supported prohibition b/c many thought it caused more problems 8.) 1933 – 21 st Amendment repealed prohibition
DEATHS DUE TO ALCOHOL, COOK COUNTY, ILLINOIS 1910-1926 SOURCE: US SENATE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE HEARINGS ON NATIONAL PROHIBITION, 1926
F. Science 1.) Scopes Trial - March 1925 – Tennessee passed the nation’s first law making it a crime to teach evolution - the ACLU promised to defend any teacher who would challenge the law. - John T. Scopes, a biology teacher in Dayton, Tenn., was arrested for reading a passage about evolution - Famous trial attorney, Clarence Darrow, was hired by the ACLU to take the case. - trial opened July 1925 and instantly became a national sensation! - Scopes was found guilty, fined $100, verdict later overturned on a technicality but the Tennessee law remained in effect.
SCOPES TRIAL THE ACLU RAN AN AD IN THE LOCAL DAYTON, TENNESSEE PAPER LOOKING FOR A TEACHER WHO WOULD HELP TO CHALLENGE THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE NEW LAW FORBIDDING THE TEACHING OF EVOLUTION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS. JOHN SCOPES, THE TEACHER WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN, THE PROSECUTORCLARENCE DARROW, THE DEFENSE LAWYER
THE JULY 1925 TRIAL QUICKLY TURNED INTO A MEDIA CIRCUS WITH BANNERS DECORATING THE STREETS. FOOD AND DRINK STANDS WERE SET UP. RUMORS WERE THAT CHIMPANZEES HAD BEEN BROUGHT TO TOWN TO TESTIFY FOR THE PROSECUTION. THE PRESS DESCENDED ON DAYTON WITH EDITORIAL CARTOONISTS AND HAD A FIELD DAY RIDICULING THE TRIAL.
THE TRIAL ENDED WITH A CONFRONTATION BETWEEN BRYAN ON THE WITNESS STAND AND DARROW QUESTIONING HIM ABOUT CREATION THEORY. BRYAN WAS UNABLE TO CONVINCINGLY DEFEND HIS POSITION, ALTHOUGH BECAUSE THE JUDGE DID NOT ALLOW ANY DISCUSSION ABOUT THE VALIDITY OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY SCOPES WAS FOUND GUILTY AND FINED $100.00. LATER THE CONVICTION WAS THROWN OUT IN THE APPEAL. HOWEVER THE LAW WAS NOT REPEALED UNTIL 1967.
G. Women in the 1920s 1.) Flappers – emancipated women who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the time - New, revealing clothes - short hair cuts, dyed black - more women began smoking cigarettes, drinking in public and talking openly about sex - marriage was seen more as a partnership between men and women – although housework and child-rearing still seen as a woman’s role
WOMEN AT TURN OF THE CENTURY WOMEN IN THE 1920s
2.) Double Standard - although newspapers, magazines, advertisements, etc. promoted the flapper, many other young women were against the new image of women. - casual dating became increasingly accepted but more sexual freedom was granted to men than women. 3.) New work opportunities - many female college graduates turned to “female professions” like teachers, nurses, librarians, receptionists, typists, secretaries
NEW CAREERS AND OPPORTUNITIES OPENED UP FOR WOMEN IN THE 1920s
4.) Changing Role of the Family - Birthrate continued to decline b/c of availability of birth control. - social and technological advancements simplified the household. - children no longer worked = school
5.) Education and Popular Culture - School enrollment increased - growing mass media - radio widely used - first major movies w/ sound, first animated films w/sound
THE JAZZ SINGER WAS THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL TALKING PICTURE
1.) Move North - 1910-1920 = Great Migration – movement of thousands of African Americans North - northern cities did not always welcome this influx = 25 urban race riots in 1919 alone 2.) African-American Goals - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) urged African Americans to protest racial violence and called for legislation to curb racial violence.
3.) Marcus Garvey and the UNIA - many African Americans chose to follow Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican immigrant who believed that African Americans should form their own separate society. - 1914 Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) - Garvey encouraged followers to return to Africa, kick out the white colonial leaders, and establish a mighty nation. - Garvey lost followers in the mid-1920s when he was charged with mail fraud and jailed.
4.) Harlem Renaissance - many African-Americans who migrated north moved to Harlem in Manhattan = Harlem became the largest black urban community - Harlem suffered poverty, overcrowding and unemployment but in the 1920s these problems were masked by the creativity of the Harlem Renaissance – a literary and artistic movement celebrating African- American culture.
HARLEM RENAISSANCE: 1919 TO 1935, HARLEM NEW YORK CITY AFTER WWI MANY BLACKS FLED THE SOUTH FOR BETTER ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES AND FREEDOM FROM KKK VIOLENCE. HARLEM, NEW YORK WAS A POPULAR DESTINATION AND NEW YORK CITY’S BLACK POPULATION SWELLED FROM 30,000 IN 1900 TO OVER 300,000 IN 1930.
BLACK ARTISTS, WRITERS, DANCERS, POETS, HISTORIANS, AND MANY OTHERS TURNED HARLEM INTO A CENTER OF CULTURE, CREATIVITY, AND EXPLORATION OF AFRICAN AMERICAN ROOTS.
- Harlem Renaissance – continued - Writers expressed a new pride in the African- American experience, celebrated their heritage and wrote about what it meant to be black in American society. - Claude McKay - novelist and poet urged African Americans to resist prejudice and wrote about the pain of life in the black ghettos - Langston Hughes – poet who’s best known works described the difficult lives of working-class African Americans. Some of his poems moved to the tempo of jazz and blues. - Zora Neale Hurston – famous for her short stories, novels and books about poor unschooled Southern blacks.
- African Americans and Jazz - Jazz was born in New Orleans in the early 20 th Century - Louis Armstrong – outstanding trumpet player famous for his sense of rhythm and ability to improvise. - Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington – jazz pianist, led a ten-piece orchestra at the famous Cotton Club in Harlem - Bessie Smith – famous blues singer who became the highest paid black artist in the world
JAZZ WAS SO POPULAR THAT THE 20s IS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS THE JAZZ AGE DUKE ELLINGTON LOUIS ARMSTRONG BIG BAND