Presentation on theme: "Politics of the Roaring Twenties Chapter 12. Section 1: Americans Struggle with Post War Issues Post War Trends: Nativism- prejudice against foreign-born."— Presentation transcript:
Section 1: Americans Struggle with Post War Issues Post War Trends: Nativism- prejudice against foreign-born people Isolationism- policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs Fear of Communism Communism- economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship
Post War Trends The Palmer Raids: August 1919 Palmer appointed Hoover and they hunted down suspected Communist, socialists, and anarchists (people who opposed any form of government). This stepped on peoples rights and soon people realized that Palmer did not know what he was talking about! Sacco and Vanzetti: Arrested and charged with murder of factory pay master. The only witness said he saw two Italians. The judge made prejudicial remarks and the jury found them guilty and sentenced them to death although they had alibis and the evidence was circumstantial.
Limiting Immigration “Keep America for Americans” The Klan Rises Again: 100% Americans and liked no one else. 1924 the Klan had 4.5 Million members. Klan dominated state Politics but decreased in power by 1930 The Quota System- B/t 1919-1921 the number of immigrants had grown 600%. The Emergency Quota Act of 1921: System established a maximum number of people who could enter the US (max number 150,000 per year)
A Time of Labor Unrest Labor and Management Conflict During war AFL (American Federation of Labor) pledged to avoid strikes 1919 more than 3,000 strikes (4 million workers walked off)
The Boston Police Strike The Boston Police strike: No raise since WWI, Not allowed to Unionize, Asked for a raise and were fired! Calvin Coolidge Mass governor called the National Guard and many people thanked him for saving Boston. Coolidge then became VP to Warren G Harding in the 1920 election. The Police were not allowed to return to their jobs
The Steel Mill Strike Workers wanted shorter working hours, better wages, the right to unionize, and collective bargaining rights. September 29 th 1919- Steel Corporation refused to meet with Union reps and 300,000 workers walked off. Hired strike breakers but ended in a deadlock and Wilson made a written plea to negotiators. Strike ended 1920 and steel companies agreed to an 8 hour work day but workers remained without a union.
The Coal Miners Strike John L Lewis- leader of United Mine Workers (UMW) proposed higher wages and shorter work days and went on strike Wilson appointed an judge to put an end to the dispute and the coal miners received a 27% increase in wages but not a shorter workday. John L Lewis became a national hero!
Labor Movement Loses Appeal 1920’s hurt the labor movement badly Union membership declined by 1.5 million members Immigrant willing to work in harsh conditions Language barriers with in Unions and organization Farmers used to relying on themselves when moved to work in the factory in the city Most Unions excluded African Americans
Section 2: The Harding Presidency Warren G Harding was described as a good-natured man who “looked like a president ought to look”. Harding struggles for Peace: Problems surfaced relating to arms control, war debts, and the reconstruction of war torn countries
Washington Naval Conference Charles Evans Hughes: Sectary of State urged that no more warships be built for 10 years. Russia was left out of conference because of Communist Government The five major Naval Powers (Italy, United States, France, Great Britain, and Japan) scrap many of their largest warships Kellogg Briand pact- pact renouncing war as a national policy 15 countries signed but it was futile and provided no means of enforcement
High Tariffs and Reparations France and Britain owed US 10 Billion dollars 1922- Fordney-McCumber Tariff- raised taxes on imports to 60% (highest ever) France turned to Germany to give them money and when that failed Charles Dawes sent out negotiation loans to avoid world conflicts
Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Hardings OHIO GANG (Poker-playing buddies) were in the cabinet Harding did not understand the issues so his administration and friends were corrupt. Charles R Forbes (head of Veterans Bureau was caught illegally selling government and hospital supplies to private companies Colonel Thomas W Miller (head of Office of Alien Property) was caught taking a bribe THE TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL: Oil-rich lands set aside for the US Navy. Albert B Fall (Secretary of Interior) secretly leased the land to private oil companies and received more that 400,000$. Shortly after Harding died of a heart attack or stroke Aug 2 nd 1923! The Public lost respect for the Republican Party and the Presidency
Section 3: The Business of America American Industries Flourish: