Presentation on theme: "Loftus and Palmer Evaluation Cognitive Core Study."— Presentation transcript:
Loftus and Palmer Evaluation Cognitive Core Study
Complete a card sort to identify which results and conclusions link to experiment 1 and which results and conclusions link to experiment 2. You will be provided with cards with information on both experiments and some ‘red herrings’ too! In pairs you need to organise the cards logically in sequence and into the three groups; 1. Results & conclusions from experiment 1 2. Results & conclusions from experiment 2 3. Red herrings!
Verb UsedSpeed estimation 2 conclusions Verb ConditionNumber of participants that saw broken glass % that saw broken glass Plus 6 red herrings! Results from exp 1:Results from exp 2:
Verb UsedSpeed estimation 2 conclusions Smashed40.8Response Bias Collided39.3 Memory alteration caused by schema provoked by the word used Bumped38.1 Hit34 Contacted31.8 Verb ConditionNumber of participants that saw broken glass % that saw broken glass Smashed1632% Hit714% Control612% Plus 6 red herrings! Results from exp 1:Results from exp 2:
Confirm your card sort is correct by your teacher Use this information to complete the Core study worksheet- complete the charts using this information Answer the questions about the conclusions that can be drawn from the study
Task…. 1. In your groups, develop at least: 2 strengths 2 weaknesses of the Loftus and Palmer Study 2. Consider: 1.2 changes that you would make 2.What implications on the results would these changes have?
Strengths 1. Degree of control over confounding variables As the study was lab-based, the researchers could ensure that a range of factors (age of participants, incident viewed, environment, etc). Consequently, they could ensure that these factors did not affect the respondents answers - and that only the verb-condition was causing the participants to re-evaluate their memories 2. The reconstructive memory hypothesis is extremely useful for instance, in formulating guidelines in for police questioning of witnesses and suspects The study has also had real-world implications; based on evidence such as Loftus’, the Devlin Report (1976) recommended trial judges be required to instruct juries that it is not safe to convict on a single eyewitness testimony alone.
Weaknesses 1. Ecological validity Viewing a video of a crash is different to experiencing one in “real life” Much less emotional involvement, which will inevitably affect recall Also, when watching a real crash, there is much more context participants had been cued to watch the video, whilst crashes in real life a largely unexpected 2. Sample used in the study could also be criticised as participants were all students ~ this could introduce confounding variables, as the students may be eager to please more senior faculty members. the memory capacity of students may be different to the general population - they are practised at memorising information, or because they have too much “important information” to remember to waste memory on the “trivial” data provided in the car-crash video
Weaknesses Cont… 3. It should also be noted that some psychologists have criticised Loftus and Palmer's conclusions. We have no way of knowing that the participants original memories had been permanently altered by the leading questions. Instead, L and P suggest that participants could merely be following the suggestions of the researcher in both the original round of questions and the follow-up questions. Demand characteristics could be “carried forward” - as participants have remembered that they had been asked about the cars "smashing“ into each other, they have been prompted to say that they have seen broken glass in the follow up study.
Eyewitness Testimony Real life application ~ Do you think that unsupported eyewitness testimony should be sufficient evidence upon which to convict someone? Consider this in your groups and note down some reasons to why you think what you do
How to play You need to draw a grid with 6 boxes. Chose 6 numbers/ terms from the list provided to you. You teacher will then read out a description and if that matches your number then put a cross in that box. 5
Rules! You have to call bingo when you have crossed all 6 boxes. Don’t pick the same answers as the person next to you! For a challenge pick 6 numbers- you should know most of them by now!
Numbers and terms Pick 6 of the following: Schema Leading question Reconstructive memory