Respiration is simply, using oxygen to change food into energy. ALL living things undergo this process
The formula for respiration is: What is missing from these equations and where does it belong?
Cellular energy is stored in a form called ATP ATP stands for adenosinetriphosphate ATP is what kind of organic compound?
ATP is a nucleotide. That means it is a mono mer (one part). Several nucleotides linked together make a nucleic acid. DNA & RNA are nucleic acids ATP formed by dehydration synthesis and broken by hydrolysis
ATP is composed of 3 things: The sugar ribose The base adenine 3 phosphate groups These phosphates are the key to the activity of ATP.
Energy is stored by adding a phosphate to ADP ADP + Pi ATP Energy stored (endogonic / endo thermic rxn) Energy is released by breaking a phosphate off ATP ATP ADP + Pi Energy released ( Exogonic/exothermic rxn)
Cells make ATP in an organelle called the mitochondria
In eukaryotes, respiration occurs in 3 steps 1. Glyco lysis (sugar breaking) 2. Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 3. Electron Transport Chain
Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of the cell and makes 2 ATP. Glycolysis starts with the monosacchride (sugar) glucose And uses the coenzyme NAD+
The Kreb’s cycle or (Citric Acid Cycle) occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria and makes 2ATP
The electron transport chain occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. It makes 34 ATP and requires oxygen It only occurs in eukaryotes
Sometimes, under an aerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions, like strenuous exercise, eukaryotes undergo fermentation
This is called lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation does NOT make energy It changes the coenzyme NADH+H+ back to NAD+ for use in glycolysis
Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria or ANY membrane bound organelle. They carry out respiration in the cytosol
Prokaryotes use the fermentation process to change the coenzyme NADH+H+ back to NAD+ Microorganism fermentation produces ethyl alcohol and CO 2
Respiration is the opposite of photosynthesisRespiration is the opposite of photosynthesis
Respiration Photo- synthesis Name: Uses CO2, light E, H2O Uses coenzyme NADP Releases O2 & Glucose Occurs in chloroplast Has 2 reactions light & dark (Calvin C) Uses pigments: chlorophyll, tannins, anthocyanins,fucoxanthyns, xanthophylls, carotenoids Makes ATP Uses ATP Part of Carbon cycle & water cycle Occur in membrane bound organelles Occur in org. with double mem. Necessary for life on earth Circulates products Uses O2 & glucose Produces CO2, E & H2O Occurs in mitochondria Has 3 reactions: glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, E- transport chain All living things do it
Respiration Photo- synthesis Name: Uses light E & CO2 & H2O Makes O2 & glucose Has 2 reactions, light & dark (Calvin C) Does not occur in Fungi Occurs in autotrophs/ producers Uses NADPH Occurs in chloroplast Requires pigments: chlorophyll, tannins, anthocyanins, carotenoids, xanthopyhlls Make & use ATP Make & use ADP Occur in cells Occur in mem. Bound organelles Occur in double mem. Organelles Both necessary for cycle of life Both components of the Carbon & Water cycles Uses O2 & glucose Produces CO2 & H2O & Energy Has 3 reactions, glycolysis, Krebs Cycle and E- chain Uses coenzyme NAD All living things do it Occurs in mitochondria
Respiration Photo- synthesis Name: Only happens in autotrophs Produces oxygen & glucose Absorbs light E Fixes CO2 Has 2 reactions light & dark (Calvin C) Uses NADPH/NADP Requires chlorophyll/ carotenoids/ anthocyanin, fucoxanthins/ tannins, xanthophylls Uses H2O Make ATP Use ATP Used by plants Codependant/ cycle Use enzymes Happen in mem. bound org. Happen in org. with double mem. w/ DNA Both necessary for life on earth Electron transport chain cycles Breaks glucose All living things do it Uses NAD/NADH Produces CO2 & H2O Has 3 reactions glycolysis, Krebs & E- transport Occurs in mitochondria Requires oxygen Does NOT require sunlight or pigments