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Chapters 8 & 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapters 8 & 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapters 8 & 9 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

2 I.Energy: the ability to do work A.Cells work: growth, repair, active transport, and reproduction B.Organisms get energy from food C.How do organisms get food? 1. Make it 2. Eat it

3 II.Autotrophs & Heterotrophs A.Autotrophs: make their own food 1. Most are photosynthetic -use sunlight as an energy source -use sunlight as an energy source -examples: plants & algae -examples: plants & algae

4 2. A few are chemosynthetic - use inorganic compounds as an energy source - use inorganic compounds as an energy source -example: bacteria deep in ocean -example: bacteria deep in ocean

5 B. Heterotrophs: cannot make their own food (also called consumers) 1. Eat autotrophs or other heterotrophs 2. Examples: animals, fungi

6 III. ATP A.Cells store energy in the form of a molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) B.Parts of ATP 1. Adenine – a nucleotide 2. Ribose – 5 carbon sugar 3. 3 phosphate groups (PO 4 )

7 Bonds broken to release energy Adenosine

8 -adenosine+PO 4 =AMP (adenosine monophosphate) -adenosine+PO 4 +PO 4 =ADP (adenosine diphosphate) - adenosine+PO 4 +PO 4 +PO 4 =ATP

9 C.ATP Cycle 1. Food energy is used to make ATP in cellular respiration 2. ATP is broken down to release energy for the cell

10 ATP ADP Energy for cell Food energy

11

12 IV. Photosynthesis A.Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts (organelles inside plants)

13 B.Overview of Photosynthesis 1. Uses light as the source of energy 2. Makes glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) 3. Uses water and carbon dioxide as reactants

14 4. Chlorophyll is the catalyst 5.Gives off oxygen as a by- product 6. Equation: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

15 C.Photosynthetic pigments 1. Chlorophyll: primary pigment; appears green

16 2.Carotenoids: secondary pigments; can appear yellow, red, or orange

17 D.Chloroplast Structure 1. Double membrane (inner=folded, outer=smooth)

18 grana: stacks of thylakoids thylakoid: 1 disc stroma: gel-like material between thylakoids

19 2. Light dependent reactions occur in the grana Light dependent reactionsLight dependent reactions 3. Light independent reactions (Calvin Cycle) occur in the stroma Light independent reactionsLight independent reactions

20 E.Summary of Photosynthesis 1. Light dependent reactions: a.light causes electrons in chlorophyll to become excited b.light energy is also used to split water b.light energy is also used to split water

21 c. oxygen is released as a by-product d. hydrogen is passed to the Calvin Cycle e.ATP is made - this is used as an energy source for the Calvin Cycle

22 2. The light independent reactions (also called the Calvin Cycle) a. CO 2 from the air combines with the hydrogen from the light dependent reactions to make sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) b. ATP made in light dependent reactions is used as an energy source

23 3. Summary equation: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 0 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 - light is required as an energy source - chlorophyll is required as a catalyst

24 V. Cellular Respiration A.Respiration occurs in mitochondria (organelles in all eukaryotic cells)

25 B.Overview of Respiration 1. Usually uses oxygen 2. Breaks down glucose into energy

26 3. Gives off carbon dioxide and water as by-products 4. Equation: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H energy

27 C. Steps of Respiration 1. Glycolysis: glucose is converted to pyruvic acid 1. Glycolysis: glucose is converted to pyruvic acidGlycolysis a.2 molecules of ATP required a.2 molecules of ATP required b. oxygen not required b. oxygen not required c. glucose (6 carbons) is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3 carbons) c. glucose (6 carbons) is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (3 carbons)

28 d.4 molecules of ATP released e. An energy-rich molecule called NADH is made – this will be used later to make ATP

29 2.Aerobic respiration: occurs if oxygen is present a. pyruvic acid is broken down into acetyl Coenzyme A b. acetyl Coenzyme A enters the Krebs Cycle

30 c. In the Krebs Cycle: In the Krebs CycleIn the Krebs Cycle 1. CO 2 is released 2. 2 molecules of ATP are produced 3. Energy rich molecules of NADH and FADH 2 are produced – these will be used later to make ATP

31 d. The electron transport chain The electron transport chainThe electron transport chain 1. Electrons from NADH and FADH 2 are passed along the electron transport chain 2. Energy from these electrons is used to make 32 ATP

32 3. Hydrogen from NADH and FADH 2 is combined with oxygen to produce H 2 O

33 3. Anaerobic respiration: occurs if oxygen is not present Anaerobic respirationAnaerobic respiration a. 2 types: 1. Alcoholic fermentation 1. Alcoholic fermentation 2. Lactic acid fermentation 2. Lactic acid fermentation

34 b. Alcoholic fermentation 1. Pyruvic acid is converted to carbon dioxide and alcohol 2. Equation: pyruvic acid + NADH alcohol + CO 2 + NAD +

35 3. Used to make bread (yeast), wine, beer, ethanol

36 c. Lactic acid fermentation 1. Pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid 2. Equation: pyruvic acid + NADH lactic acid + NAD +

37 3.Occurs in animal cells - after strenuous exercise, there is a shortage of oxygen going to the muscles - a build-up of lactic acid causes muscle fatigue and soreness


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