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Cell Energy: ATP, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Energy: ATP, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Energy: ATP, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
Chapters 8 & 9

2 Energy for the Cell ATP= Adenosine Triphosphate 3 major parts to ATP: 1. Adenine Adenosine 2. Ribose (sugar) 3. Three phosphates

3 Adenosine Triphosphate

4 adenine three phosphates ribose

5 How is energy released from ATP?
Break a bond between 2nd & 3rd phosphates This releases ENERGY to be used by cells!

6 3rd phosphate is broken off

7 ATP breaking down to ADP and releasing ENERGY!

8 ADP= Adenosine Diphosphate
Only 2 phosphates instead of 3 ADP is recycled to make ATP [add a phosphate] If ADP/ATP is not reused, we would eat 24/7 just to have enough energy!

9 ADP being recycled to create ATP once again.

10 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis = process trapping light energy to make GLUCOSE [chemical (food) energy]

11 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2 6 carbon dioxide 6 water
1 glucose 6 oxygen

12 Where does photosynthesis take place?
PLANTS only; in the LEAVES In plant cell, inside CHLOROPLASTS

13 Chlorophyll = pigment that captures light energy from sun
found in THYLAKOID DISCS in chloroplasts

14 http://www. nicerweb. com/doc/class/bio100/Locked/media/ch06/DB06100

15 Why are Plants Green? Chlorophyll absorbs all wavelengths of light EXCEPT for green. Green wavelengths are REFLECTED most

16 Green wavelength Green not absorbed so it gets reflected – that’s why plants look green!

17 Photosynthesis occurs in 2 phases:
1. Light Dependent Reactions 2. Light Independent Reactions

18 Light DEPENDENT rxns (Occurs in thylakoids)
takes light energy to make ATP & NADPH (needed for light indep. rxns) converts H2O to O2

19 Three Processes: a. Electron transport chain (ETC) 1) light hits chlorophyll & energizes e- 2) e- move down a chain to make NADPH (a form of energy)

20 b. Photolysis = splits water to make oxygen , hydrogen ions & electrons (to replace e- used in ETC)
2H2O  4H+ + 4e- + 02

21 c. Chemiosmosis moves H+ (made in photolysis) to stroma (space inside chloroplast) to make ATP


23 2. Light INDEPENDENT Reactions (CALVIN CYCLE) = makes glucose from CO2 using NADPH & ATP made in light dep. rxns

24 a. Occurs in light or dark
b. Occurs in stroma c. Glucose has 6 carbons & CO2 has only 1 carbon Calvin cycle must go around 6 times to make 1 glucose

25 Light O2 Sugars CO2 NADPH ATP ADP + P NADP+ Chloroplast Light Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle

26 CELLULAR RESPIRATION = process that breaks down glucose to make ATP occurs PLANT & ANIMAL cells

27 C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP 1 glucose 6 oxygen 6 carbon dioxide
6 water

28 Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen present No oxygen present Aerobic Respiration Fermentation

29 Glycolysis – breaking down glucose into pyruvic acid
occurs in cytoplasm ANAEROBIC = does not require oxygen (can still occur if O2 present)

30 Makes : 4 ATP Uses: 2 ATP NET TOTAL: 2 ATP

31 A. Aerobic Respiration = breaks down glucose to make ATP when O2 is available
occurs in MITOCHONDRIA 2 major stages (after glycolysis)

32 1) Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb’s Cycle) – uses pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) to make ATP & CO2
occurs in MATRIX [space within mitochondria] AEROBIC = requires oxygen makes 2 ATP

33 2) Electron Transport Chain (ETC) – Makes H2O & ATP from O2 and H+
Occurs in CRISTAE (inner membrane) AEROBIC makes 34 ATP

Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP (Kreb’s Cycle) ETC = 34 ATP From 1 glucose 38 ATP!

35 Glucose Cytoplasm Mitochondrion
Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion

36 B. FERMENTATION (Anaerobic Respiration)
= breaks down glucose to make ATP when no O2 is available begins after glycolysis

37 2 major types: 1) Lactic acid fermentation –glucose breaks down to make lactic acid & CO2 makes 2 ATP (including glycolysis)

38 occurs in bacteria [yogurt, cheese, etc.] occurs in human muscle cells [under heavy exercise, not enough O2 – lactic acid builds up in muscles & makes you sore]

39 2) Ethyl alcohol fermentation –glucose breaks down to make ethyl alcohol & CO2
makes 2 ATP (including glycolysis) occurs in yeast [bread rises because CO2 bubbles formed in dough]

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