Presentation on theme: "Create this T-chart in your notebook. Left hand page (58)"— Presentation transcript:
Create this T-chart in your notebook. Left hand page (58)
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Observe the two types of cells. List 3 similarities and 3 differences on your notes page.
Cell City Tour You are going to go on a cell city tour. On the left side of your notebook (under your t-chart) you will list the organelles you find on the tour and give a possible function of the organelle from the clues on the tour (or prior knowledge).
Unit 3 Chapter 7 A View of the Cell
Cytology: the study of cells Histologist: studies cells
Organization Atom Molecule Organelles Cell Tissue Organs Systems Organisms
Cell Theory 1) All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2) The cell is the basic unit of structure and functions of living things 3) All cells come from pre-existing cells
To be a cell… Plasma membrane: cell membrane, made of 2 layers of phospholipids Cytoplasm: carbohydrate and water based solution that suspends all internal parts of the cell Ribosomes: produces proteins DNA: genetic material made of nucleic acids
Two types of cells Prokaryote: bacteria, archaebacteria Eukaryote: protist, fungus, plant, animal
Prokaryotic cell No nucleus No organelles Small Simple Plasma membrane, ribosome, cytoplasm, DNA Typically unicellular Ex. Archaebacteria
Eukaryote Complex 4 basic components + organelles Organelles: small compartments that carry out specialized functions within a cell Multicellular organisms Many variations
Plasma Membrane A flexible boundary between the cell and its environment maintains a balance of nutrients, etc Selective permeability A process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out
Structure of the Plasma membrane Phospholipids A double layer that creates water-soluble outsides surrounding water insoluble insides Transport Proteins Span the entire membrane to regulate which molecules enter and which leave
Major Organelles Nucleus – both plant and animal Chloroplast - plants Mitochondria – plant and animal Centrioles - animal **Don’t forget the importance of the plasma membrane! Organelles are membrane bound structures with particular (specialized) functions within eukaryote cells.
Nucleus cell control Chromatin Strands of genetic material (DNA) that contains the directions for making proteins. Forms chromosomes Nucleolus, Nuclear Pores, and Nuclear Envelope A prominent body within the nucleus, which makes the ribosomes
Cytoplasmic Organelles Chloroplasts Containing the green pigment, chlorophyll, these oval bodies capture light energy and turn it into chemical energy (photosynthesis)
Cytoplasmic Organelles Mitochondria Rod-shaped organelle with many inner folds, which breaks down sugar to release its stored energy for cell use (cell respiration)
Cytoplasmic Organelles Centrioles Pairs of microtubules that play an important role in cell division
Plant and Animal Cell Similarities Cell membrane that surrounds the cell Cytoplasm Nucleus that houses DNA Ribosomes for protein production Mitochondria that breaks down food and creates energy for the cell. Vacuoles for storage of food, water, and waste. Although plants have one large vacuoles compared to animals many small vacuoles.
Differences in Plant and Animal Cells Plants contain a cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane and provides shape and support. Plants contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis Plant cells have a brick-like shape where as animal cells are more cylindrical. Plants use chloroplasts to store energy in sugar; animal cells use mitochondria to release energy stored in food. Plants contain a cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane and provides shape and support. Plants contain chloroplasts for photosynthesis Plant cells have a brick-like shape where as animal cells are more cylindrical. Plants use chloroplasts to store energy in sugar; animal cells use mitochondria to release energy stored in food.
Endosymbiotic Theory Scientific explanation: Origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts Endosymbiotic bacteria – bacteria that live within other cells and perform specific functions for host cells Endosymbiotic Theory – suggests critical stage in evolution of eukaryotic cells involved endosymbiotic relationships with prokaryotes Energy-producing bacteria reside in larger bacteria, eventually evolving into mitochondria Photosynthetic bacteria live within larger bacteria, leading to evolution of chloroplasts
Endosymbiotic Theory Support for endosymbiotic theory Presence of numerous symbiotic relationships Present-day mitochondria, chloroplasts, and centrioles contain their own DNA Similar to DNA of bacteria in size and character
Let’s Practice! Foldable 1. Draw, label, compare & contrast prokaryote and eukaryotic cells (both plant and animal) 2. Compare & contrast plant and animal cells 3. Draw & discuss the purpose & function of the following organelles 1. Nucleus chloroplast Cell wall 2. Mitochondria ribosome nucleolus 3. Cytoplasm cell membrane Vacuole 4. Draw and explain the endosymbiotic theory.