Presentation on theme: "Create this T-chart in your notebook. Left hand page (58)"— Presentation transcript:
1Create this T-chart in your notebook. Left hand page (58)
2Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Observe the two types of cells. List 3 similarities and 3 differences on your notes page.
3Cell City TourYou are going to go on a cell city tour. On the left side of your notebook (under your t-chart) you will list the organelles you find on the tour and give a possible function of the organelle from the clues on the tour (or prior knowledge).
5Cytology: the study of cells Histologist: studies cells
6Organization Atom Molecule Organelles Cell Tissue Organs Systems Organisms
7Cell Theory 1) All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2) The cell is the basic unit of structure and functions of living things3) All cells come from pre-existing cells
8To be a cell…Plasma membrane: cell membrane, made of 2 layers of phospholipidsCytoplasm: carbohydrate and water based solution that suspends all internal parts of the cellRibosomes: produces proteinsDNA: genetic material made of nucleic acids
11Prokaryotic cell No nucleus No organelles Small Simple Plasma membrane, ribosome, cytoplasm, DNATypically unicellularEx. Archaebacteria
12Eukaryote Complex 4 basic components + organelles Organelles: small compartments that carry out specialized functions within a cellMulticellular organismsMany variations
13Plasma MembraneA flexible boundary between the cell and its environment maintains a balance of nutrients, etcSelective permeabilityA process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out
15Structure of the Plasma membrane PhospholipidsA double layer that creates water-soluble outsides surrounding water insoluble insidesTransport ProteinsSpan the entire membrane to regulate which molecules enter and which leave
17Major Organelles Nucleus – both plant and animal Chloroplast - plants Mitochondria – plant and animalCentrioles - animal**Don’t forget the importance of the plasmamembrane!Organelles are membrane bound structures with particular (specialized) functions within eukaryote cells.
18Nucleus cell control Chromatin Strands of genetic material (DNA) that contains the directions for making proteins. Forms chromosomesNucleolus, Nuclear Pores, and Nuclear EnvelopeA prominent body within the nucleus, which makes the ribosomes
19Cytoplasmic Organelles ChloroplastsContaining the green pigment, chlorophyll, these oval bodies capture light energy and turn it into chemical energy (photosynthesis)
20Cytoplasmic Organelles MitochondriaRod-shaped organelle with many inner folds, which breaks down sugar to release its stored energy for cell use (cell respiration)
21Cytoplasmic Organelles CentriolesPairs of microtubules that play an important role in cell division
22Plant and Animal Cell Similarities Cell membrane that surrounds the cellCytoplasmNucleus that houses DNARibosomes for protein productionMitochondria that breaks down food and creates energy for the cell.Vacuoles for storage of food, water, and waste. Although plants have one large vacuoles compared to animals many small vacuoles.
23Differences in Plant and Animal Cells Plants contain a cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane and provides shape and support.Plants contain chloroplasts for photosynthesisPlant cells have a brick-like shape where as animal cells are more cylindrical.Plants use chloroplasts to store energy in sugar; animal cells use mitochondria to release energy stored in food. Plants contain a cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane and provides shape and support.Plants use chloroplasts to store energy in sugar; animal cells use mitochondria to release energy stored in food.
24Endosymbiotic Theory Scientific explanation: Origin of mitochondria and chloroplastsEndosymbiotic bacteria – bacteria that live within other cells and perform specific functions for host cellsEndosymbiotic Theory – suggests critical stage in evolution of eukaryotic cells involved endosymbiotic relationships with prokaryotesEnergy-producing bacteria reside in larger bacteria, eventually evolving into mitochondriaPhotosynthetic bacteria live within larger bacteria, leading to evolution of chloroplasts
25Endosymbiotic Theory Support for endosymbiotic theory Presence of numerous symbiotic relationshipsPresent-day mitochondria, chloroplasts, and centrioles contain their own DNASimilar to DNA of bacteria in size and character
26Let’s Practice! Foldable Draw, label, compare & contrast prokaryote and eukaryotic cells (both plant and animal)Compare & contrast plant and animal cellsDraw & discuss the purpose & function of the following organellesNucleus chloroplast Cell wallMitochondria ribosome nucleolusCytoplasm cell membrane VacuoleDraw and explain the endosymbiotic theory.