2 Cell Theory Cells are the basic units of living organisms. The cell theory states that:All living things are made of one or more cells.Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.All cells come from other cells.
3 Cell Types Two categories: 1. Cell that have membrane-bound organelles Called Eukaryotic Cells2. Cells that do not have membrane-bound organellescalled prokaryotic cellsUnicellular organisms such as bacteria are examples of prokaryotes.
4 Cell Types Eukaryotic cells- Cells that contain organelles which are held together by membranesExamples include plant and animal cells.
5 Eukaryotic Cell Structure The plasma membrane/cell membranethe flexible boundary of a cellseparates a cell from its surroundings
6 Plasma Membrane/Cell Membrane continued: allows nutrients to enter the cell and waste to be removedThis is referred to as selective permeability. *(Selective=Chooses, Permeability=filter through)*keeping a healthy balance of nutrients and water within the cell is called homeostasis
7 Overview of Organelles Nucleus-Largest organelle in the cell and it is the most inner compartment of the cellcontains chromatin (DNA); genetic information on strands called chromosomes“control center” for cell metabolism and reproductionChromatin- Directions on how to make proteinsNucleolus- Found inside nucleus; ribosomes are made here
8 Overview Cont’dRibosomes- make proteins (made up of RNA and protein); thought of as “factories”Cytoplasm- clear gel like fluid inside the cell, which suspends all organellesEndoplasmic Reticulum- extensive network of membranesRough ER: with ribosomesSmooth ER: with no visible ribosomesGolgi Apparatus- sorts proteins made by the ribosomes and sends them to needed places in the cell
9 Mitochondria- often referred to as the “powerhouse” of the cell Lysosomes- organelles that are filled with digestive enzymes to remove waste and invading bacteriaMitochondria- often referred to as the “powerhouse” of the cellrelease energy for the cellIt converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP for the cellVacuoles- fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membraneStore materials such as food, sugar, water, and waste products
10 Eukaryotic plant cellPlant cells are also Eukaryotic cells, but plant cells contain some organelles that are not found in animal cells.
11 Plant Cell OrganellesCell wall- rigid wall outside the plasma membrane. It provides the cell with extra support.Chloroplasts- captures light and energy; and converts it into chemical energy.Chlorophyll- green pigment found inside the chloroplast.Plastids- organelles that store things such as food in the plant cell.
12 Poster projectCreate a 3 part poster comparing and contrasting the structures/organelles of each cell (prokaryotic, animal and plant)Identify the shape of each cellIdentify the structure and function of each organelle in the eukaryotic cellsPoint out differences between organelles in the plant and animal cell