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Eukaryotic Cells vs. Prokaryotic Cells. Cell Theory Cells are the basic units of living organisms. The cell theory states that:  All living things are.

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Presentation on theme: "Eukaryotic Cells vs. Prokaryotic Cells. Cell Theory Cells are the basic units of living organisms. The cell theory states that:  All living things are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eukaryotic Cells vs. Prokaryotic Cells

2 Cell Theory Cells are the basic units of living organisms. The cell theory states that:  All living things are made of one or more cells.  Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.  All cells come from other cells.

3 Cell Types Two categories: 1. Cell that have membrane-bound organelles  Called Eukaryotic Cells 2. Cells that do not have membrane-bound organelles  called prokaryotic cells Unicellular organisms such as bacteria are examples of prokaryotes.

4 Cell Types Eukaryotic cells-  Cells that contain organelles which are held together by membranes  Examples include plant and animal cells.

5 Eukaryotic Cell Structure The plasma membrane/cell membrane  the flexible boundary of a cell  separates a cell from its surroundings

6 Plasma Membrane/Cell Membrane continued: allows nutrients to enter the cell and waste to be removed  This is referred to as selective permeability. *(Selective=Chooses, Permeability=filter through)* keeping a healthy balance of nutrients and water within the cell is called homeostasis

7 Overview of Organelles Nucleus-  Largest organelle in the cell and it is the most inner compartment of the cell  contains chromatin (DNA); genetic information on strands called chromosomes  “control center” for cell metabolism and reproduction Chromatin- Directions on how to make proteins Nucleolus- Found inside nucleus; ribosomes are made here

8 Overview Cont’d Ribosomes- make proteins (made up of RNA and protein); thought of as “factories” Cytoplasm- clear gel like fluid inside the cell, which suspends all organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum- extensive network of membranes  Rough ER: with ribosomes  Smooth ER: with no visible ribosomes Golgi Apparatus- sorts proteins made by the ribosomes and sends them to needed places in the cell

9 Lysosomes- organelles that are filled with digestive enzymes to remove waste and invading bacteria Mitochondria- often referred to as the “powerhouse” of the cell  release energy for the cell  It converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP for the cell Vacuoles- fluid filled organelles enclosed by a membrane  Store materials such as food, sugar, water, and waste products

10 Eukaryotic plant cell Plant cells are also Eukaryotic cells, but plant cells contain some organelles that are not found in animal cells.

11 Plant Cell Organelles Cell wall- rigid wall outside the plasma membrane. It provides the cell with extra support. Chloroplasts- captures light and energy; and converts it into chemical energy. Chlorophyll- green pigment found inside the chloroplast. Plastids- organelles that store things such as food in the plant cell.

12 Poster project Create a 3 part poster comparing and contrasting the structures/organelles of each cell (prokaryotic, animal and plant) Identify the shape of each cell Identify the structure and function of each organelle in the eukaryotic cells Point out differences between organelles in the plant and animal cell

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14 Poster example 1:

15 Poster example 2:

16 Bacterial cell Animal cell Plant cell

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