2Cell Respiration Who does it? What is it? Where does it occur? All living things (including plants!)What is it?Carbohydrates and O2 are used to make ATP (energy). CO2 and H20 are waste products.The opposite of photosynthesis.Involves three steps: glycolysis, kreb’s cycle, and electron transport chain.Where does it occur?The cytoplasm and the mitochondria of the cell
4Cell Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP Glucose+ oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy
5Redox ReactionsRedox-reaction, or an oxidation-reduction reaction, is the movement of electrons from one molecule to another.Because an electron transfer requires both a donor and acceptor, oxidation and reduction always go together.Cellular respiration is an example of a redox-reaction“fall” of electrons, with energy released in small amounts that can be stored in ATP
6Redox Reactions Oxidation Reduction The loss of electrons from one substanceGlucose loses electrons (in H atoms) and becomes oxidizedReductionThe addition of elections to another substanceO2 gains electrons (in H atoms) and becomes reduced
7Cell Respiration occurs in three main stages GlycolysisOccurs in the cytoplasm; glucose is broken down to two pyruvate molecules; provides energy for ETCThe citric acid cycle (Kreb’s cycle)Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria; further breaks down pyruvate to carbon dioxide; provides energy for ETCOxidative phosphorylation (Electron Transport Chain)Takes place in the cristae of the mitochondria. Also known as chemiosmosis; NADH and FADH2 made in glycolysis and Kreb’s shuttle electrons and H+ to make ATP.
8Glycolysis Means “splitting sugar” Begins with a single molecule of glucose (6-C) and concludes with two molecules of another organic compound, called pyruvate (3-C).A net gain of 2 NADH molecules and 2 ATP moleculesATP can be used by cell immediately; NADH must pass down the ETC in mitochondriaSubstrate-level phophorylation occursAn enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule directly to ADP, forming ATP
9Glycolysis 9 Steps (Figure 6.7C) Steps 1-3: A sequence of three chemical reactions converts glucose to a molecule of fructose using 2 ATP.Step 4: Fructose splits into two G3P moleculesStep 5: G3P gets oxidized and NAD+ is reduced to NADHSteps 6-9: specific enzymes make four molecules of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation. Water gets produced as a by-product
10Glycolysis2 ATP produced account only for 5% of the energy that a cell can harvest from a glucose molecule.2 NADH account for another 16%, but there stored energy is not available for use in the absence of O2.
11Pyruvate chemical “grooming” As pyruvate forms at the end of glycolysis, it is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondriaPyruvate does not enter the Kreb’s Cycle as itself.It undergoes major chemical “grooming”
12Pyruvate chemical “grooming” A large, multienzyme complex catalyzes three reactions:A carbon atom is removed from pyruvate and released in CO2The two-carbon compound remaining is oxidized while a molecule of NAD+ is reduced to NADHA compound called coenzyme A, derived from a B vitamin, joins with the two-carbon group to form a molecule called acetyl coenzyme A:Abbreviated acetyl CoA, is a high-energy fuel molecule for the Kreb’s CycleFor each molecule of glucose that enters glycolysis, two molecules of acetyl CoA are produced and enter the Kreb’s cycle.
14Kreb’s CycleOverview:Called Krebs in honor of Hans Krebs, German-British researcher who worked out much of this cyclic phase of cellular respiration in the 1930s.Only the two-carbon acetyl part of the acetyl CoA molecule actually participates in the citric acid cycle.Coenzyme A helps the acetyl group enter the cycle and then splits off and is recycled.Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondriaCompared with glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle pays big energy dividends to the cellThis makes 1 ATP, 4 NADH and 1 FADH2, per acetyl coA (double that for each glucose molecule)Releases CO2 as wasteis aerobic (requires oxygen)
15Kreb’s Cycle Details of the citric acid cycle: Figure 6.9B: Step 1 Acetyl coA is stripped via enzymes: coA is recycle and the remaining acetyl (2-C) is combined with oxaloacetate already present in the mitochondria forming citrate (6-C)Step 2 and 3Redox reactions take place stripping hydrogen atoms from organic intermediates producing NADH molecules and dispose of 2-C that came from oxaloacetate, which are released as CO2.Substrate-level phos. of ADP occurs to form ATP.A 4-C molecule called succinate forms.Step 4 and 5Oxaloacetate gets regenerated from maltate, and FAD and NAD+ are reduced to FADH2 and NADH, respectively.Oxaloacetate is ready for another turn of the cycle by accepting another acetyl group
17Electron Transport Chain Involves oxidative phosphorylationA clear illustration of structure fitting function: the spatial arrangement of electron carriers built into a membrane makes it possible for the mitochondrion to use the chemical energy released by redox reactions to create an H+ gradient and then use the energy stored in the gradient to drive ATP synthesisChemiosmosis also occursThe potential energy of the concentration gradient is used to make ATP.
18Electron Transport Chain Built into the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, or in the cristae folds, providing space for thousands of copies of the electron transport chain and many ATP synthase complexesWith all these ATP-making “machines,” a mitochondrion can produce many ATP molecules simultaneously.
19Electron Transport Chain Figure 6.10:Path of electron flow from the shuttle molecules NADH and FADH2 to O2, the final electron acceptor.Each oxygen atom (1/2 O2) accepts two electrons from the chain and picks up two hydrogen ions from the surrounding solution to form H2O, one of the final products of cellular respiration.Most of the carrier molecules reside in the three main protein complexes, while two mobile carriers transport electrons between the complexes.
20Electron Transport Chain Figure 6.10 (continued):All of the carriers bind and release electrons in redox reactions, passing electrons down the “energy staircase.”Protein complexes shown in the diagram use the energy released from the electron transfers to actively transport H+ across the membrane, from where they are less concentrated to where they are more concentrated.Hydrogen ions are transported from the matrix of the mitochondrion (its innermost compartment) into the mitochondrion’s intermembrane space.
21Electron Transport Chain Figure 6.10 (continued):The resulting H+ gradient stores potential energy, similar to a dam storing energy by holding back elevated water.Dams can be harnessed to generate electricity when the water is allowed to rush downhill, turning giant wheels called turbines.Similarly, ATP synthases built into the inner mitochondrial membrane act like minature turbines. H+ can only cross through ATP synthases bc they are not permeable to the membrane.Hydrogen ions rush back “downhill” through an ATP synthase, spinning a component of the complex, just as water turns the turbine in a dam.Rotation activates catalytic sites in the synthase that attach phosphate groups to ADP molecules to generate ATP.
22Electron Transport Chain Why is this process called oxidative phosphorylation?The energy derived from the oxidation-reduction reactions of the electron transport chain that transfer electrons from organic molecules to oxygen is used to phosphorylate ADP.By chemosmosis, the exergonic reactions of electron transport produce an H+ gradient that drives the endergonic synthesis of ATP.
23Cell Respiration Summary TOTAL= 38 ATP (theoretical)GlycolysisOccurs in cytoplasm2 ATP2 NADH2 H20 get released2 pyruvateKreb’s Cycle (including pyruvate grooming)8 NADH2 FADH26 CO2 get releasedElectron Transport ChainH20 gets released10 NADH get converted to 3ATP= 30 ATP2 FADH2 get converted to 2 ATP= 4 ATP
24Poisons Some poisons block the electron transport chain. Rotenone Often used to kill pest insects and fish.binds tightly with the electron carrier molecules in the first protein complex, preventing electrons from passing to the next carrier molecule.Literally starves an organism’s cells of energy bc it blocks the ETC near its start thus preventing ATP synthesis.
25Poisons Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide Bind with an electron carrier in the third protein complexBlock the passage of electrons to oxygenSimilar to turning off a faucet; electrons cease to flow through the “pipe”Result is the same as that or rotenone: no H+ gradient is generate and no ATP is made.***refer to page 99 in your book for other examples***
26Fermentation-Anaerobic Respiration Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that generates ATP during fermentation.No O2 is required; it generates a net gain of 2 ATP while oxidizing glucose to two molecules of pyruvate and reducing NAD+ to NADH.Significantly less ATP is generated, but it is enough to keep your muscles contracting for a short while when the need for ATP outpaces the delivery of O2 via the blood streamMany microorganisms supply all their energy needs with the 2 ATP yield of glycolysis.
27Fermentation-Anaerobic Respiration Strict Anaerobes require anaerobic conditions and are poisoned by oxygen Facultative Anaerobes can make ATP either by fermentation or by oxidative phosphorylation, depending on whether O2 is available.
28Fermentation-Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation provides an anaerobic step that recycles NADH back to NAD+; essential to harvest food energy by glycolysis.Two types of fermentation:Lactic acidAlcohol
29Fermentation-Anaerobic Respiration Lactic acid fermentationFigure 6.13ANADH is oxidized to NAD+ as pyruvate is reduced to lactate (the ionized form of lactic acid)Lactate builds up in muscle cells during strenuous exercise is carried in the blood to the liver, where it is converted back to pyruvateDairy industry use this to with bacteria to make cheese and yogurt
30Fermentation-Anaerobic Respiration Alcohol fermentationFigure 6.13AUsed in brewing, winemaking, and bakingUsed by yeasts and bacteria (facultative anaerobes)Recycle their NADH to NAD+ while converting pyruvate to CO2 and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).CO2 provides bubbles in beer and champagne, and bread dough to riseEthanol is toxic to organisms that produce it; must release it to their surroundings
31Fuels for cell respiration Free glucose molecules are not common in our dietWe obtain most of our calories as fats, proteins, sucrose, and other disaccharide sugars, and starch
32Fuels for cell respiration Carbohydrates (polysaccharides and starch)Figure 6.14Enzymes in our digestive tract hydrolyze starch to glucose; glycogen can be hydrolyzed to glucose to serve as fuel between meals.
33Fuels for cell respiration Proteins:First must be digested to their constituent amino acidsTypically, cell will use most of the amino acids to make its own proteins, but enzymes will convert excess a.a. to intermediates of glycolysis or the Kreb’s cycle, and their energy is harvested by cell respiration.Amino groups unused are disposed in urine.
34Fuels for cell respiration Fats:Excellent cellular fuel bc they contain many hydrogen atoms and thus many energy-rich electronsCell first hydrolyzes fats to glycerol and fatty acidsIt converts glycerol to G3P; fatty acids are broken into 2-carbon fragments that enter the Kreb’s as acetyl coAA gram of fat yields more than twice as much ATP as a gram of starch.Because so many calories are in each gram of fat, a person must expend a large amount of energy to burn fat stored in the body.
35Fuels for cell respiration Food is also used as the raw materials a cell uses for biosyntheis, to make its own molecules for repair and growth…not just for ATP!To make cells, tissues, and organisms:Amino acids proteinsFatty acids and glycerols fatsSugars carbohydrates