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CELLULAR RESPIRATION: Harvesting Chemical Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "CELLULAR RESPIRATION: Harvesting Chemical Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: Harvesting Chemical Energy

2 What is cellular respiration? n the process by which the energy contained in organic molecules is released and transferred into ATP

3 What is cellular respiration? n oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel

4 What is cellular respiration? n Aerobic respiration can release energy from a molecule of glucose to produce 38 ATP, shown in this equation. C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 --Enzymes---> 6CO 2 +6H 2 O+38ATP (Glucose) + (oxygen) (carbon-dioxide) (water)

5 Energy Flow and chemical recycling

6 Overview of Cellular Respiration

7 ATP Yield during Cellular Respiration

8 Function of the Mitochondria n The purpose of Mitochondria is to create energy for cellular activity by the process of aerobic respiration

9 Function of the Mitochondria n During aerobic respiration, glucose is broken down in the cells cytoplasm to from PYRUVIC acid which is transported into the Mitochondria. This is called the citric and acid cycle or Krebs cycle, in which the Pyruvic acid reacts with water to produce carbon dioxide and ten hydrogen atoms.

10 Function of the Mitochondria n Coenzymes transport the hydrogen atoms to the cristae where they are given to the electron transport chain use in the formation of ATP.

11 Glycolysis n has NO oxygen requirement n occurs in nearly all organisms and probably evolved from ancient prokaryotes before oxygen was available

12 Glycolysis: the facts n glucose splitting n 6C glucose two 3C pyruvate n catabolic process n occurs in the cytosol n nets 2 ATPs by substrate phosphorylation and 2 molecules of NADH

13 Krebs Cycle n occurs in the mitochondrial matrix n degrades the pyruvate derivative to carbon dioxide n produces little ATP by substrate phosphorylation but much NADH

14 Electron Transport Chain n accepts electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle passing them downhill from one molecule to the next in the chain n at the end of the chain, electrons are combined with hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen to form water

15 Oxidative Phosphorylation n occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane n energy released from glycolysis & Krebs is used to make ATP n accounts for almost 90% of ATP generated by respiration

16 Oxidative Phosphorylation n electrons lose little potential energy when they are transferred from food to NAD + n each molecule of NADH formed during respiration represents stored energy to make ATP when the electrons fall from NADH to oxygen

17 Oxidative Phosphorylation n since oxygen is the final hydrogen acceptor, this process is known as oxidative phosphorylation n since oxygen is required the process is aerobic respiration

18 A closer look at glycolysis

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20 Junction between Glycolysis & Krebs

21 A Closer Look at the Krebs Cycle

22 Summary of the Krebs Cycle

23 Chemiosmosis – Closer Look at ETS

24 Review of Cellular Respiration

25 Oxygen or no oxygen……….. n oxidation of glucose is exergonic & some of the liberated energy is used to make ATP by substrate phosphorylation n the oxidizing agent of glucose is NAD + not oxygen n glycolysis generates 2ATP (net) whether or not oxygen is present

26 Anaerobic Respiration n Anaerobic refers to respiration where oxygen is not involved n Fermentation = ATP production without the help of oxygen

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28 Alcoholic Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration) ………………………………………… Glucose 2 Pyruvates 2 Acetaldehydes + 2 CO 2 2 Ethanols

29 Lactic Acid Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration) ………………………………………… n Glucose 2 Pyruvates 2 Lactates n cheese, yogurt, acetone, methyl alcohol

30 Lactic Acid Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration) ……………………………………… n occurs when sugar catabolism outpaces the muscles supply of oxygen from the blood (oxygen debt) n lactate results in muscle fatigue and pain

31 Lactic Acid Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration) ……………………………………… n lactate is eventually transported by blood to the liver and converted back to pyruvate

32 …………………………………… Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be used as fuel for cellular respiration. …………………………………….

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