Presentation on theme: "Objectives Contrast the roles of glycolysis and aerobic respiration in cellular respiration. Relate aerobic respiration to the structure of a mitochondrion."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Contrast the roles of glycolysis and aerobic respiration in cellular respiration. Relate aerobic respiration to the structure of a mitochondrion. Summarize the events of the Krebs cycle. Summarize the events of the electron transport chain and H + / ATP synthase pump. Calculate the efficiency of aerobic respiration.
Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO2 + H2O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O2 ATP powers most cellular work Heat energy Photosynthesis Cell Respiration Cycle
Life Is Work Living cells –Require transfusions of energy (a.k.a., food) from outside sources to perform their many tasks –The giant panda obtains energy for its cells by eating plants
Harvesting Chemical Energy Cellular respiration is the process by which cells break down organic compounds to produce ATP. Both autotrophs and heterotrophs use cellular respiration to make CO 2 and water from organic compounds and O 2. The products of cellular respiration are the reactants in photosynthesis; conversely, the products of photosynthesis are reactants in cellular respiration. Cellular respiration can be divided into two stages: glycolysis and aerobic respiration.
An overview of cellular respiration… Electrons carried via NADH Glycolsis Glucose Pyruvate ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Electrons carried via NADH and FADH 2 Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Mitochondrion Cytosol AEROBIC RESPIRATION
CELLULAR RESPIRATION (Figure 5.4, p. 133) ALL organisms do respiration!!! energy in glucose released to produce ATP two types of respiration – AEROBIC (requires oxygen) – ANAEROBIC (does not require oxygen) both types start with glycolysis
GLYCOLYSIS (Figure 5.6, p. 135) glycolysis is the first step of respiration occurs in ALL cells!!! occurs in cytoplasm and is anaerobic (no O 2 ) glucose is converted to pyruvic acid – produces 2 ATP (~2% of energy in 1 glucose) – pyruvic acid then used in… fermentation or aerobic respiration
FERMENTATION (ANAEROBIC) occurs in cytoplasm – consumes pyruvic acid with no ATP production!!! LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION – creates lactic acid – example overworked muscles with low O 2 – feels like cramp or soreness ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION - produces ethyl alcohol and CO 2 – used to make beer; wine; dough
In alcohol fermentation – Pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, one of which releases CO 2 During lactic acid fermentation – Pyruvate is reduced directly to NADH to form lactate as a waste product 2 ADP + 2 P1P1 2 ATP Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD + 2 NADH 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetaldehyde 2 Ethanol (a) Alcohol fermentation 2 ADP + 2 P1P1 2 ATP Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD + 2 NADH 2 Lactate (b) Lactic acid fermentation H H OH CH 3 C O – O C CO CH 3 H CO O–O– CO CO O CO C OHH CH 3 CO 2 2
Overview of Aerobic Respiration In eukaryotic cells, the processes of aerobic respiration occur in the mitochondria. Aerobic respiration only occurs if oxygen is present in the cell. The Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The electron transport chain (which is associated with the production of ATPs) is located in the inner membrane.
Mitochondria, the super-energy harvesters Mitochondria –are the sites of aerobic cellular respiration –are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells –are enclosed by two membranes smooth outer membrane an inner membrane folded into cristae (i.e., higher surface area for chemical reactions)
Mitochondrion Intermembrane space Outer membrane Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial DNA Inner membrane Cristae Matrix 100 µm
AEROBIC RESPIRATION (requires O 2 ) Net reaction… C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP mitochondria enzymes
The Krebs Cycle In the mitochondrial matrix, pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis reacts with coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA. Then, acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle. One glucose molecule is completely broken down in two turns of the Krebs cycle. These two turns produce four CO 2 molecules, two ATP molecules, and hydrogen atoms* that are used to make six NADH* and two FADH 2 * molecules. * The energy released by the breakdown of glucose is about to be transferred to ATP!!!
AEROBIC RESPIRATION (requires O 2 ) occurs ONLY in mitochondria (Figure 5.10, p.138) pyruvic acid from glycolysis is metabolized in the KREB’S CYCLE – occurs in the matrix – two turns of cycle (1 glucose molecule) yields 4 CO 2, 2 ATP, and several energy rich molecules (NADH and FADH 2 ) – the energy rich molecules NADH and FADH 2 are used to make a lot of ATP energy rich (using electron transport chains and ATP synthase)
Enzymes in the Kreb’s (or citric acid) cycle… pyruvate
Summary of Kreb’s (Citric Acid) Cycle X 2 diffuse out used in e- transport chain
Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthesis High-energy electrons from from NADH and FADH 2 are passed from molecule to molecule in the electron transport chain along the inner mitochondrial membrane. Hydrogen ions, H +, are also given up by NADH and FADH 2. As the electrons move through the electron transport chain, they lose energy. This energy is used to pump protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space. The resulting concentration gradient of hydrogen ions drives ATP synthase and ATP production!
Electron Transport Chain, H +, & ATP synthesis H + move through ATP synthase to make ATP from ADP+Pi Oxygen combines with the electrons and protons to form water.
Electron Transport Chain and ATP synthase The Importance of Oxygen –ATP can be synthesized using the diffusion of H + ions from the outer compartment to the inner compartment only if electrons continue to move along the electron transport chain. –Oxygen is the final electron acceptor –As a result, ATP can continue to be made through the ATP pump.
AEROBIC RESPIRATION Electron Transport Chains & ATP synthesis – uses membrane bound proteins – O 2 molecules are consumed – this produces 32 more ATP SO... total yield of ATP (1 glucose molecule) from aerobic respiration AND glycolysis = 38 ATP 19-times more ATP than from anaerobic respiration alone !!! (~40% of the energy in a glucose molecule is converted to ATP) WHAT HAPPENS TO THE OTHER 60%?
A Summary of Cellular Respiration Another Role of Cellular Respiration –Providing cells with ATP is not the only important function of cellular respiration. –Molecules formed at different steps in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are often used by cells to make compounds that are missing in food. fatty acids, glycerol, amino acids
(REVIEW) Glycolysis – Can produce ATP with or without oxygen, in aerobic or anaerobic conditions – Glycolysis is often coupled with fermentation to produce a few more ATP, especially in prokaryotes Fermentation consists of – Glycolysis plus either alcohol or lactic acid fermentation
Fermentation and Cellular Respiration Compared Both fermentation and cellular respiration – Use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate Cellular respiration (i.e., complete oxidation) is more efficient than anaerobic respiration pathways – Produces more 19x more ATP (38 versus 2 ATP)
Pyruvate is a key juncture in catabolism Glucose CYTOSOL Pyruvate No O 2 present Fermentation O 2 present Cellular respiration Ethanol or lactate Acetyl CoA MITOCHONDRION Citric acid cycle
The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis Glycolysis – Occurs in nearly all organisms – Probably evolved in ancient prokaryotes before there was oxygen in the atmosphere – The pathways are similar ( or conserved ) across nearly all kingdoms (i.e., they are physiologically important and have not changed very much)