Presentation on theme: "Writing for Proficiency K-3 NKCES Summer Institute 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Writing for Proficiency K-3 NKCES Summer Institute 2014
Written Expression: A Spectrum of Skills GrammarSyntaxSpellingPunctuationContent‘Style’
Oh my, Is this communicating? The patient refused autopsy. The patient has no previous history of suicides. Patient has chest pain if she lies on her left side for over a year. On the second day the knee was better, and on the third day it disappeared. The patient is tearful and crying constantly. She also appears to be depressed. Discharge status: Alive but without my permission.
The Three Modes of Writing Opinions/ArgumentInformational/ Explanatory Narrative Purpose 1.To change the readers point of view 2.To bring about some action on the reader’s part 3.Or, to ask the reader to accept the writer’s explanation or evaluation of a concept using reason and logic to demonstrate the validity of the writer’s claim Purpose 1.To increase readers knowledge of a subject 2.To help readers better understand a process or procedure 3.Or, to provide readers with an enhanced comprehension Purpose 1.To inform 2.To instruct 3.To persuade 4.Or to entertain using experiences that are real or imaginary, using time as a deep structure
Two Major Text Structures Informational (Expository) The purpose of expository text is to inform the reader of an event or provide general information. Opinion Informative Explanatory Research Narrative (story) The purpose of narrative text is to entertain the reader or present a story. Story Personal Narrative Fable Novel Play
What is in Appendix C? Appendix C contains annotated student writing samples that demonstrate the criteria required in a particular grade to meet the CCR standards for these specific types of writing: argument, narrative and informative/explanatory text. The table of contents, found on page 4 of Appendix C, indicates the type of writing, the content and the grade level each student sample represents. Additionally, each sample includes an annotation at the top of the page about the circumstance under which the piece was written. For example, the piece may have been written in response to a class assignment, with or without feedback and support from the teacher or peers, for an on-demand assessment, or even as the result of a long-term, research-based inquiry project. To further illustrate text types and purposes, there are examples of argument, narrative and informative/explanatory text included in the collection of student samples.
Tier 1 Interventions: If a child… Then… Scribbles Ask about the story Drawing a picture Have the child tell the story Writes a string of random letter Praise concepts about print Writes one or two words Tape the telling of the story Is reluctant to spell words Model how you spell Writes too broadly Zoom in Writes like a list Ask questions about details
Rubric for Handwriting
Rubrics for Paragraph Writing
Simplified data sample
Written Expression (WE)-CBM Identify WHO has a problem (benchmark screening) What is the problem? (error analysis) Instructional Planning (progress monitoring and instruction)
Name the ProblemWhat is the problem?What do the numbers say? Fluencyamount of textTotal words written Legibilityreadability, handwriting Letter formation analysis ConventionsSpelling, punctuation, capitalization % errors in conventions ** Differentiate between specific types of convention errors. Syntactic Maturitysentence lengths/types% of complete sentences- % of sentence types Semantic MaturityVocabularytype-token ratio ContentOrganizationholistic scoring rubrics Writing Processplanningobservational/holistic scales Error Analysis
Thinking through Interventions Group Students according to analysis Look at all the samples of student work (including yours) from today. If this was your class, ask yourself What are the common skills the groups need? (A student may be in more than one group) What are the skill gaps? How might I extend the learning for students? How could I continue to reinforce the learning through the next lesson/unit?
CBM research norms (Mirkin, P.K., Deno, S.L., Fuchs, L., Wesson, C., Tinal, G., and Kuehnle, K. 1981) GradeWords written in 3 minutes
Estimated Targets (Best Practices in School Psychology V; The ABC’s of CBM; Intervention Central) GradeTime of year TWWWSCCWS 1Fall/Sprin g 7-8/14-205/10NA 2Fall/Sprin g 12-24/ /27NA 3Fall/Sprin g 23-36/ /3314/26 4Fall/Sprin g 33-41/ /4423/37 5Fall/Sprin g 37-51/ /5534/41 Use with caution! Local norms should develop over time.
AIMSweb Benchmarks for CWS Grade Level 90 %tile Total CWS Fall 75%tile Total CWS Fall 50%tile Total CWS Fall 90 %tile Total CWS Winter 75%tile Total CWS Winter 50%tile Total CWS Winter
DIEBELS benchmarks for %CWS Levels of Challenge: 97% - 100% AccuracyIndependent 90% - 96% AccuracyInstructional < 90% AccuracyFrustration
Determining Area of Need Data is reviewed by RtI team to support below level performance. If need is determined, the team decides on Tier II & Tier III interventions. One of four areas of focus for the writing intervention is selected: Physical Production of Writing/Handwriting Mechanics & Conventions/Grammar Writing Content Organization Idea Development Writing Production/Revision
What Does the Research Say is Effective K-3? 1.Provide daily time for students to write. Minimal Evidence 2.Teach students to use the writing process for a variety of purposes. Strong Evidence 3.Teach students to become fluent with handwriting, spelling, sentence construction, typing, and word processing. Moderate Evidence 4.Create an engaged community of writers. Minimal Evidence What Works Clearinghouse: Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers (2012)
Physical Production of Writing Problem?Writing CompetencySample Intervention Ideas ___Y ___N Writing Speed. Writes words on the page at a rate equal or nearly equal to that of classmates Teach keyboarding skills Allow student to dictate ideas into a tape- recorder and have a volunteer (e.g., classmate, parent, school personnel) transcribe them ___Y ___N Handwriting. Handwriting is legible to most readers Provide training in handwriting Teach keyboarding skills
Mechanics & Conventions of Writing Problem?Writing CompetencySample Intervention Ideas ___Y ___N Grammar & Syntax. Knowledge of grammar (rules governing use of language) and syntax (grammatical arrangement of words in sentences) is appropriate for age and/or grade placement Teach rules of grammar, syntax Have students compile individualized checklists of their own common grammar/syntax mistakes; direct students to use the checklist to review work for errors before turning in ___Y ___N Spelling. Spelling skills are appropriate for age and/or grade placement Have student collect list of own common misspellings; assign words from list to study; quiz student on list items Have student type assignments and use spell-check
Writing Content Problem?Writing CompetencySample Intervention Ideas ___Y ___N Vocabulary. Vocabulary in written work is age/grade appropriate Compile list of key vocabulary and related definitions for subject area; assign words from list to study; quiz student on definitions of list items Introduce new vocabulary items regularly to class; set up cooperative learning activities for students to review vocabulary ___Y ___N Word Choice. Distinguishes word-choices that are appropriate for informal (colloquial, slang) written discourse vs. formal discourse Present examples to the class of formal vs. informal word choices Have students check work for appropriate word choice as part of writing revision process ___Y ___N Audience. Identifies targeted audience for writing assignments and alters written content to match needs of projected audience Direct students to write a ‘targeted audience profile’ as a formal (early) step in the writing process; have students evaluate the final writing product to needs of targeted audience during the revision process ___Y ___N Plagiarism. Identifies when to credit authors for use of excerpts quoted verbatim or unique ideas taken from other written works Define plagiarism for students. Use plentiful examples to show students acceptable vs. unacceptable incorporation of others’ words or ideas into written compositions
Writing Preparation Problem?Writing CompetencySample Intervention Ideas ___Y ___N Topic Selection. Independently selects appropriate topics for writing assignments Have student generate list of general topics that that interest him or her; sit with the student to brainstorm ideas for writing topics that relate to the student’s own areas of interest ___Y ___N Writing Plan. Creates writing plan by breaking larger writing assignments into sub-tasks (e.g., select topic, collect source documents, take notes from source documents, write outline, etc.) Create generic pre-formatted work plans for writing assignments that break specific types of larger assignments (e.g., research paper) into constituent parts. Have students use these plan outlines as a starting point to making up their own detailed writing plans. ___Y ___N Note-Taking. Researches topics by writing notes that capture key ideas from source material Teach note-taking skills; have students review note-cards with the teacher as quality check.
Writing Production & Revision Problem?Writing CompetencySample Intervention Ideas ___Y ___N Adequate ‘Seat Time’. Allocates realistic amount of time to the act of writing to ensure a quality final product Use teacher’s experience and information from proficient student writers to develop estimates of minimum writing ‘seat time’ needed to produce quality products for ‘typical’ writing assignments (e.g., 5- paragraph opinion essay; 10-page term paper). Share with students. Have students keep a writing diary to record amount of time spent in act of writing for each assignment. Require that this information be submitted along with the students’ assignment. (Additional idea: Consider asking parents to monitor and record their child’s writing time.) ___Y ___N Oral vs. Written Work. Student’s dictated and written passages are equivalent in complexity and quality Allow student to dictate ideas into a tape-recorder and have a volunteer (e.g., classmate, parent, school personnel) transcribe them Permit the student to use speech-to-text software (e.g., Dragon Naturally Speaking) to dictate first drafts of writing assignments.
Writing Production & Revision (Cont.) Problem?Writing CompetencySample Intervention Ideas ___Y ___N Revision Process. Revises initial written draft before turning in for a grade or evaluation Create a rubric containing the elements of writing that students should review during the revision process; teach this rubric to the class; link a portion of the grade on writing assignments to students’ use of the revision rubric. ___Y ___N Timely Submission. Turns in written assignments (class work, homework) on time Provide student incentives for turning work in on time. Work with parents to develop home-based plans for work completion and submission. Institute school-home communication to let parents know immediately when important assignments are late or missing.
Resources Brookins, C. (2013). Writing instruction and interventions that work. [PowerPoint Slides]. KEDC.org Busch, T., Hall, T. (2007) Using curriculum-based measurement for progress monitoring in written expression. [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from Graham, S., Harris, K. & Larson, L. (2001). Prevention and intervention of writing difficulties for students with learning disabilities. The Division of Learning Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children. 16(2), (pp ). University of Maryland Learning Disabilities Research & Practice. Oczkus, L. (2007). Guided writing: Practical lessons, powerful results. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Lane, C. (2012). Tier 2 Writing interventions: Supporting struggling students. Lee Pesky Learning Center. [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from idahotc.com/Portals/23/Docs/training/Tier2-Reading- Training-97.ppt Wright, J. (2012). RTI: Tier 2 for writing. [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from