Presentation on theme: "Mar - 2009Vu Thi Thanh Hue1 GRAMMAR REVISION By: Nguyen T Bich Ngoc Foreign Languages Faculty Thainguyen University."— Presentation transcript:
Mar Vu Thi Thanh Hue1 GRAMMAR REVISION By: Nguyen T Bich Ngoc Foreign Languages Faculty Thainguyen University
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc2 Language Focus 1.Tenses 2.Voices: Active, Passive 3.Models: Can, may, must, have to, should, will, would 4.Verb patters 5.Conditionals 6.Key structure (especially for rewriting and translation) -So/such…. that -Too + adj / not +adj + enough -Used to; Be/get used to -Present perfect (This is the first time…; Have never before; this is the most….ever -Comparison -Although/ despite/ In spite of --Purpose (so that; so as; in order to) -Direct – Indirect speech -Inversion -It’s (high) time…
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc3 English Verbs * Normal verbs to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch, etc. Examples: I eat dinner every day. I am eating dinner now. * Non-Continuous Verbs Abstract Verbs to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist... Possession Verbs to possess, to own, to belong... Emotion Verbs to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind... Examples: He is needing help now. Not Correct He needs help now. Correct He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct He wants a drink now. Correct
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc5 VERB TENSES Present tenses Past tenses Future tenses -Simple - Continuous - Perfect
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc6 VERB TENSES I work at the university He often buys her flowers The sun sets in the West. Present simple Present continuous We are learning English Laura is sitting under the sunshade He’s always telling lies Present perfect She has lived in this house for 2 years He has sold his car. He has just painted the room - Permanent situations - Repeated actions/ habit - Facts -Temporary situations - Action happening at/around the time of speaking - Annoyance - Fixed arrangement -Action started in the past continue up to present -Actions finished recently - Actions happened at an indefinite time in the past
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc7 PRESENT TENSES I work at the university He often buys her flowers The sun sets in the West. Present simple Present continuous We are learning English Laura is sitting under the sunshade He’s always telling lies Present perfect She has lived in this house for 2 years He has sold his car. He has just painted the room V (s/es) Is/am/are + Ving Have/has + past participle Usually, always, never, often, sometimes, everyday/week/month/ year Just, ever, never, already, yet, for, since, so far, recently, several times Now, at the moment, at present, always, tonight
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc8 PAST TENSES He sold his car 2 weeks ago When she was young, she lived in a small flat. She put on her coat, took the bag and left the house Past simple Past continuous At 8 o’clock last night, she was watching TV. They were dancing while he was playing the guitar He was painting the bedroom when suddenly felt off the ladder. Past perfect She had already left when I got home. He had arrived by 8 o’clock Actions happened at a stated time in the past A past state or habit Actions happened one after the other. Actions in the middle of happening at a stated time in the past. Two or more actions happening at the same time in the past. Actions happened before another action/stated time in the past.
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc9 PAST TENSES He sold his car 2 weeks ago When she was young, she lived in a small flat. She put on her coat, took the bag and left the house Past simple Past continuous At 8 o’clock last night, she was watching TV. They were dancing while he was playing the guitar He was painting the bedroom when suddenly felt off the ladder. Past perfect She had already left when I got home. He had arrived by 8 o’clock V + ed V irregular was/were + Ving had + past participle Yesterday, last week/month/year /Monday, ago, how long ago, then, in 1980 Already…before, by+(time) At 12 last night, while, when
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc10 FUTURE TENSES I will send you the information when I get it. I will call you when I arrive. The year 2222 will be a very interesting year. Simple future Future continuous This time next week we will be having a party Future perfect By next November, I will have received my promotion. I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework Voluntary actions Promise Prediction Actions that will be happening at a particular time or over a particular time in the future. Actions that will occur before another action in the future.
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc11 FUTURE TENSES I will send you the information when I get it. I will call you when I arrive. The year 2222 will be a very interesting year. Simple future Future continuous This time next week we will be having a party Future perfect By next November, I will have received my promotion. I will have finished all my homework by 10 o’clock Will + VerbWill – be + V-ing Will – have + Past participle
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc12 Tips to remember
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc13 Voices: Active, passive Changing from Active into Passive SubjectVerbObject Picasso painted that picture SubjectVerbObject That picture was painted by Picasso Be + participle Object (active) = Subject (passive) Verb (active) = be + participle Subject (active) = Object (passive) introduced by “by”
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc14 Voices: Active, passive Active voice Passive voice Present simpleS – do/doesS - is/am/are - done Past simpleS – didS – was/were - done Present perfectS – has/have – doneS- has/have – been done Future simpleS – will – doS – will – be done Past perfectS – had doneS – had – been done Present cont.S – is/am/are – doingS – is/am/are/ - being - done Past cont.S – was/were – doingS – was/were – being done Infinitive to doto be done ModelsS- may/might/must – doS – may/might/must – be done
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc15 Voices: Active, passive Active voice Passive voice Present simpleHe delivers the lettersThe letters are delivered. Past simpleHe delivered the lettersThe letters were delivered. Present perfectHe has delivered the lettersThe letters have been delivered Future simpleHe will deliver the lettersThe letters will be delivered Past perfectHe had delivered the lettersThe letters had been delivered Present cont.He is delivering the letterThe letters are being delivered Past cont.He was delivering the lettersThe letters were being delivered InfinitiveHe has to deliver the lettersThe letters have to be delivered ModelsHe may deliver the lettersThe letters may be delivered He must deliver the lettersThe letters must be delivered
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc16 Voices: Active, passive Use: Example -Jane was shot (we don’t know who shot her) - This church was built in 1815 (unimportant agent) - He has been arrested (obviously by the police) - 30 people were killed in the earthquake (the action is more important than the agent)
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc17 modals The model verbs are: can, could, must, need, will, would, shall, should, may, might, etc Example Can she play tennis? No, she can’t play tennis but she can play golf Models + infinitive (without “to”)
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc18 Functions of modal verbs We express ability with: Can ( ability in the present or future) Can you swim? No, I can’t. I can run fast though. Could / was able to (ability in the past) She could / was able to dance for hours when she was young He was able to win the race Couldn’t / wasn’t able to I couldn’t / wasn’t able to find my keys. He couldn’t / wasn’t able to ski when he was young
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc19 Functions of modal verbs We express possibility / probability with: May ( perhaps, very possible)He may be back before noon Might (perhaps, very possible)There might be some cheese in the fridge Could (possible)He could still be at home Must (it’s almost certain, I think)They look alike. They must be twins Can’t (it does not seem possible; I don’t think) You have been sleeping all day. You can’t be tired. Can he be? (Is it possible?)Can he still be at work? We express permission with: Can (informal)Can I borrow your pen? Could ( more polite)Could I borrow your car? May (formal)May I use your phone? Might (more formal)Might I see your driving license?
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc20 Functions of modal verbs Giving / refusing permission can( informal, giving permission)You can have one more if you want may( formal, giving permission) You may stay a little longer Mustn’t (refusing permission)You mustn’t park here Can’t (refusing permission)You can’t enter this room. We make requests, offers or suggestions with: Can (request)Can you help me tidy the room? Could (polite request/suggestion)Could I have a little more cake please? Would you like (polite offer)Would you like some more lemonade? Shall I/we (suggestion/offer)Shall I post this letter for you? (offer) Shall we buy him a present? Will (offer/request)I’ll make you some coffee if you want. Will you do me a favour?
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc21 Functions of modal verbs We express advice with Should / ought toYou should walk more (general advice; I advise you) Had betterYou’d better see your dentist (advice for specific situation; it is a good idea) We obligation/necessity with: Must (strong obligation or personal feelings of necessity) We must follow the school rules. (obligation; I’m obliged to) I must see a doctor soon. (I decide if it is necessary) Have to (external necessity) I have to do my homework everyday (others decide it is necessary) I’ve got to (informal; it’s necessary) I’ve got to leave early today.
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc22 Functions of modal verbs We express absence of necessity or prohibition with Mustn’t (prohibition) You mustn’t park here. (it’s forbidden) Can’t (prohibition) You can’t enter the club without a card. (you are not allowed) Needn’t ( it is not necessary) You needn’t take an umbrella. It is not raining Don’t need/have to (it is not necessary in the present/future) You don’t need/have to do it now. You can do it later (it is not necessary) Didn’t need/have to (it was not necessary in the past) He didn’t need/ have to go to work yesterday because it was Sunday. (it is not necessary)
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc23 conditionals Type 1: real present If clause Main clause (result) Use If + Present S Unless (= If not) Future Imperative Can/may/must + bare infinitive Present Simple Real or very probable situation in the present or future If he comes late, we’ll miss the bus If you can’t afford it, don’t buy it.OrUnless you can afford it, don’t buy it If you see her can you give her a message? If water gets very cold, it turns into rice
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc24 conditionals Type 2: unreal present If clause Main clause (result) Use If + Past S. Unless (= If not) Would/could/might + bare infinitive improbable situation in the present or future; also used to give advice If I were you, I would see a doctor If I had money, I could buy a new car.
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc25 conditionals Type 3: unreal past If clause Main clause (result) Use If + Past Perfect. Unless (= If not) Would/could/might + have + participle improbable situation in the past; also used to express regrets or criticism If you hadn’t been rude, he wouldn’t have fired you
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc26 1. So sánh bằng Cấu trúc sử dụng là as.... as S + V + as + adj/ adv + as + noun/ pronoun He is not as tall as his father. 2. So sánh hơn kém - Tính từ và phó từ ngắn (đọc lên chỉ có một vần). Tính từ và phó từ dài (2 vần trở lên). _ Tính từ và phó từ ngắn + er. - Tính từ tận cùng là y, dù có 2 vần vẫn bị coi là tính từ ngắn và phải đổi thành Y-IER (happy→happier; dry→drier; pretty→prettier). Trường hợp đặc biệt: strong→stronger; friendly→friendlier than/ more friendly than. Đối với tính từ và phó từ dài phải dùng more/less. S + V + short adjective_er + THAN + noun/ pronoun short adverb_er more + long adj/adv less + long adj/adv Để nhấn mạnh so sánh, có thể thêm much/far trước so sánh, công thức: S + V + far/much + Adj/Adv_er + than + noun/pronoun S + V + far/much + more + Adj/Adv + than + noun/pronoun Ex: Harry’s watch is far more expensive than mine Ex: He speaks English much more rapidly than he does Spanish. Các dạng so sánh của tính từ và phó từ
Nov Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc27 So sánh bậc nhất - Dùng khi so sánh 3 người hoặc 3 vật trở lên: - Tính từ và phó từ ngắn +est. - Đối với tính từ và phó từ dài dùng most hoặc least. - Đằng trước so sánh phải có the. - Dùng giới từ in với danh từ số ít. John is the tallest boy in the family - Dùng giới từ of với danh từ số nhiều Deana is the shortest of the three sisters - Sau thành ngữ One of the + so sánh bậc nhất + noun phải đảm bảo chắc chắn rằng noun phải là số nhiều, và động từ phải chia ở số ít. One of the greatest tennis players in the world is Johnson. Các dạng so sánh của tính từ và phó từ
ALTHOUGH / DESPITE / INSPITE OF 1. Despite/Inspite of = bất chấp - Đằng sau hai thành ngữ này phải dùng một ngữ danh từ, không được dùng một câu hoàn chỉnh. Ex: Despite his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman. Jane will be admitted to the university in spite of her bad grades. 2. Although/Even though/Though = Mặc dầu - Đằng sau 3 thành ngữ này phải dùng một câu hoàn chỉnh, không được dùng một ngữ danh từ. Although he has a physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
V-ing or To Infinitive Động từ nguyên thể là tân ngữ agree attempt claim decide demand desire expect fail forget hesitate hope intend learn need offer plan prepare pretend refuse seem tend want wish Verb -ing dùng làm tân ngữ admit appreciate avoid can't help delay deny enjoy finish mind miss postpone practice quit repeat risk suggest Ex: John admitted stealing the jewels. Lưu ý rằng trong bảng này có mẫu động từ can't help doing/ but do smt: không thể đừng được phải làm gì Ex: With such good oranges, we can't help buying (but buy) two kilos at a time.
1. USED TO + infinitive: sự việc đã từng diễn ra trong quá khứ một cách thường xuyên nhưng bây giờ không còn nữa. 2. (be) USED TO + V.ing: quen với một việc gì 3. (get) USED TO + V.ing: làm quen với một việc gì. Ví dụ: He used to work six days a week. (Now he doesn’t) It took my brother two weeks to get used to working at night. Now he’s used to it. USED TO; BE/ GET USED TO
Terry ran so fast that he broke the previous speed record. Judy worked so diligently that she received an increase in salary. She is so beautiful that anyone sees her once will never forget her. The little boy looks so unhappy that we all feel sorry for him. It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors. It was such an interesting book that he couldn’t put it down SO/ SUCH THAT
Mary is too tired to walk. John is too busy to go to the party. She is old enough to do what she wants Those apples aren’t ripe enough to eat He is tall enough to play volley ball He is tall. He can play volleyball TOO+ADJ / NOT+ADJ+ENOUGH
INVERSION 1.Only When + S V, Vaux + S V : Chỉ khi làm gì I didn't know she had been well-known until her friends told me. => Only when her friends told me did I know she had been well- known 2. Seldom/Hardly/Scarcely/Barely + Vaux + S V : hiếm khi mà She seldom misses a lecture => Seldom does she miss a lecture 3. No sooner had + S done - than S did : Vừa mới...thì đã... Nosooner had we come home than it rained 4. Only by Doing + Vaux + S V :Chỉ bằng cách làm gì We must take a taxi or will be late => Only by taking a taxi will we get there on time