Presentation on theme: "Disease Eradication Programs. Common Core / Next Generation Science Standards Addressed. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or."— Presentation transcript:
Common Core / Next Generation Science Standards Addressed. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
Bell Work! Why is brucellosis called Bang’s disease? What is a dead end host? How has the rabies control program reduced the number of cases in humans?
Disease Eradication Federal and state animal health regulatory agencies work together on animal health programs. Cooperation between these agencies has led to the reduction of the following diseases. Brucellosis Tuberculosis Anthrax Rabies Pseudorabies Avian Influenza Newcastle disease Bovine Trichomoniasis
Brucellosis Brucellosis is a contagious disease in cattle which results in abortions, delivery of weakened calves and reduced milk production. The disease is commonly called Bangs disease after the Dutch scientist Bernhard Bang who discovered the bacteria in 1897. Cattle are infected through the mouth, the bacteria is located in the udder and reproductive system of the cow. When an infected cow gives birth or suffers and abortion millions of bacteria are released. During hot weather the sun will kill brucella abortus bacteria but in cold periods the bacteria can live for quite a long time. (months).
Brucellosis Cont. Cattle brucellosis only affects cow although bulls and steers can carry the bacteria. Wildlife can also carry the disease but are commonly referred to as dead-end hosts as they seldom infect cattle Dogs and coyotes are also dead-end hosts but spread the disease because they carry and drag infected fetuses and after birth from one area to another. The disease incubation period in cattle is very erratic because it can last from a few days to many months before infectious results take place.
Brucellosis Cont. In New Mexico as with most states surveillance does take place. Females sold at auction must have blood drawn for brucellosis testing. Brucellosis bacteria may be found in milk but killed by heat during the pasteurization process. Livestock sold by private treaty should have a test performed by a local veterinarian. If a cow or heifer tests positive the herd of origin will be tested. If infected cows are found the herd will be quarantined and no animals will be allowed to move from one location to another. During the quarantine, infected animals will be sent to slaughter. The quarantine will be lifted if cattle test clean twice, six months apart.
Brucellosis Cont. All female calves should be vaccinated between the ages of four and eight months of age. Certainly before the animal reaches sexual maturity. If bull calves are vaccinated they may become sterile. Swine may become infected, the treatment program is much the same as the program in cattle.
Cattle Tuberculosis Cattle tuberculosis is infective in all warm blooded animals. The tuberculosis bacterium is transmissible in the air as well as in water and feed. Human tuberculosis is generally caused by a different strain of bacteria. Tuberculosis affects an animals lungs. Tumor like masses form as a result of the animals body reacting to the infective bacteria. The result of the disease is weight loss, weakness, emaciation, nasal discharge and coughing. There is no cure for tuberculosis, infected animals are destroyed. The tuberculosis eradication program has been conducted in the US since 1917. A skin test similar to the human test can be conducted and the lungs examined during slaughter.
Anthrax Control Programs Anthrax is a bacterial disease that affects primarily humans and ruminant animals. Anthrax germs are found in spores common in soil. Spores will surface during extremes in drought or wet periods. Infection can occur by swallowing the germs or through infections of wounds. Very sudden death is the primary symptom in otherwise healthy animals. Anthrax may be identified by blood tests, carcasses of infected animals should be burned to prevent spread of the spores carrying the disease.
Rabies control programs. Rabies is an infectious viral disease causing inflammation of the brain known as encephalitis. All warm blooded animals and humans are susceptible to the disease. Domestic livestock and pets can contract rabies from wild animals. The throat is paralyzed so the infected animal can’t swallow causing saliva/drool to accumulate. Rabies is transmitted by saliva from the bites of infected animals. Domestic dogs and cats must be vaccinated by a licensed veterinarian.
Rabies Control Programs Cont. A pet suspected of being infected with rabies must be quarantined for ten days. If the animal dies during that period its head is sent to the state health department for testing. If the animal is healthy after ten days it will be returned to its owner. Humans infected via bites may be treated with a series of vaccinations.
Control of Pseudorabies Pseudorabies is a highly contagious disease that affects swine. Pseudorabies is spread by direct contact from an infected individual to another animal. Nasal discharge and saliva contain the virus. Up to sixty percent of young swine that contract the disease may be lost. Pregnant sows that contract the disease will suffer from abortions. Feral swine serve as host and should be kept away from domestic animals.
Exotic Newcastle, Pullorum- Typhoid and Avian Influenza control programs. Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid are infectious to chickens and turkeys. Both of these bacterial diseases are very infectious and spread rapidly in day old chicks. The NPIP (National Poultry Improvement Program)is a voluntary state/federal program that began in 1935 in an effort to eliminate these two bacterial diseases. All hatching eggs and hatched birds must originate from NPIP flocks.
Avian Influenza Avian influenza is caused by a virus and affect many species of birds. There area two strains of Avian influenza. Low pathogenic avian influenza is found in the US. High pathogenic avian influenza is considered a foreign animal disease.
Avian Influenza The natural reservoir for avian influenza is migratory waterfowl. The virus is carried in the intestines of infected birds. Susceptible birds that come into contact with saliva and feces will become infected themselves. The symptoms of infection are: sudden death poor appetite decreased egg production soft shelled deformed eggs swelling of the head, eyelids, comb, wattles and hocks purple discoloration of the wattles, legs and comb coughing incoordination Diarrhea
Controlling Avian Influenza Keep poultry house locked and the windows closed. Provide disease free clothing for workers. No visitors allowed! Do not visit other producers flocks. Disinfect all vehicles entering the farm premises. Clean and disinfect production facilities. Test sick birds.
High Pathogenic Avian Influenza There are strains of HPAI that affect humans and can cause death of infected individuals. This happens of rare occasions. Facilities can be disinfected, complete drying of facilities will help eradicate the disease.
Exotic Newcastle Disease. Exotic Newcastle (END)disease affect all species of birds and is highly contagious making it one of the worst poultry diseases in the world. END is transmitted by direct bird to bird contact. The virus is found in excretions from the nose, mouth and eyes as well as feces. Biosecurity measures are essential in controlling the disease. The virus will survive in humid areas and on frozen materials indefinitely. Exposure to sunlight and drying time will eliminate the virus.
END Symptoms Infected birds often die before they exhibit symptoms which include; Green, watery diarrhea Sneezing, coughing and gasping for air Muscle tremors, drooping twisted necks Paralysis Swelling of the tissues around the eyes and neck
Control of END Upon confirmation of END by a veterinarian the entire flock should be destroyed as rapidly as possible. Following disinfection, thirty days should be allowed before birds are reintroduced to the facilities.
Bovine Trichomoniasis Control. Bovine trichomoniasis is a veneraeal disease affecting cattle. The disease has no outward symptoms the best control measure is to simply prevent exposure. “Trich” is transmitted sexually and not through environmental exposure. Bulls become carriers after servicing infected cows. The protozoa live in the female reproductive tract and will be shed in 5-6 months if there has been no sexual activity.
Prevention of “Trich.” To avoid a trichomoniasis infestation implement the following practices. Maintain fences to avoid “visiting” bulls. Buy virgin bulls and heifers when possible. Use young bulls as older bulls serve as carriers. Test new stock prior to purchase. Consider AI if practical Try to isolate newly purchased breeding stock.
Vesicular Stomatitis Control Programs Vesicular stomatitis is a zoonotic viral disease that affects cattle, horses and swine. VS has been a problem in horses here in New Mexico. VS may be transmitted by direct contact or by fomites. Biting gnats and flies also serve as a means of transmission. Infected animals will salivate excessively due to the lesions that may form on the tongue, lips and tongue. Lesions on the feet of pigs are also common. The incubation for VS is 3-5 days after exposure.
Prevention of Vesicular Stomatitis To protect animals from vesicular stomatitis; Control flies and gnats Keep stalls clean Feed horses from individual buckets Disinfect tools, trailers, trailer tires and truck tires. Isolate and quarantine infected animals for thirty days.
Control of West Nile Encephalitis West Nile encephalitis is a mosquito borne zoonotic viral disease that causes inflammation of brain tissue. West Nile affects birds, horses and humans. West Nile has been fatal for a number of people in New Mexico, generally the very young or elderly. West Nile encephalitis was first identified in 1999 and is now infecting animals in 48 states. Migrating birds that have been infected by mosquitos spread the disease. Horses are very susceptible to West Nile Virus.
Clinical symptoms of West Nile Virus The incubation period for West Nile is 3 to 14 days. Two thirds of the infected horses will recover. Common symptoms in horse include; Depression Apprehension Weakness of limbs Muscle twitching Partial Paralysis Death
Prevention of West Nile Virus. The following guidelines will help protect people and horses from the West Nile Virus. Remove standing water where mosquitos breed. Decrease exposure to mosquitos. Clean water troughs. Use mosquito repellent (humans and horses). Wear long sleeves and avoid shorts. Vaccinate horses.