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Side Bar: Vomiting Larry

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1 Side Bar: Vomiting Larry
C day Or Due next time I see you. The article must stay here but it is posted on-line OR you can come during lunch or after school today and finish

2 EBOLA-2014 largest in history Affecting
 multiple countries in West Africa


4 Why do we care about Patient Zero so much?
1. better chances controlling the outbreak. Where were they and who'd they contaminate? Track the spread of disease Start isolation and treat the people who might be carriers. Done early enough, the outbreak can be artificially “shutdown”.  not the case in the current ebola epidemic

5 Still do not know the carrier of ebola, thought to be bats
2. Strong chance of locating the exact place where the first infection happened. can often lead to the identification of the source of infection which allows for preventative steps to stop future epidemics. In current ebola outbreak thought to be a 2 year old child that was playing in a tree where bats live. Still do not know the carrier of ebola, thought to be bats

6 Contagion introduces the importance of zoonosis.
diseases which are naturally transmitted between animals and humans. The pathogen are: bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites or protozoa Disease transfer occurs by direct or indirect exposure: directly through skin to skin contact ingestion of diseased animal products Products: infected feces, Urine, Saliva, Blood, Milk, or other bodily fluids. a bite or sting indirect exposure occurs through air, water or soil in which the pathogen can survive for a limited amount of time without a host.

7 Think about it In your notes list any diseases you’ve heard of that effect our area. Ex: Influenza, West Nile Virus, Lyme Disease, measles, ebola All of these are zoonotic in origin & there are many more.


9 Side bar Gorillas also contract ebola.
“Scientists estimate that 1/3 of the world's gorillas have already been killed by this disease over the last 30 years” Again, thought to be carried by bats which do not become sick.

10 History Many epidemics of the past were zoonotic.
Once a disease is transferred from an animal to a human, the disease has the ability to be passed very rapidly from person-to-person. The most serious occurred during World War I; It killed 675,000 Americans and between 20 and 50 million people worldwide. That’s more than all the wars of the 20th century put together. What was the disease?

11 The 1918 flu! The virus appears to have jumped, directly, from birds to humans.
That jump, exceptional virulence, and the ability to be spread from human to human appear to be caused by only a few changes in avian flu DNA. Avian flu still pops up. The last big one was SARS. Millions of domestic birds were killed in Asia to stop the spread.

12 How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?
Seasonal Flu vs. Pandemic Flu Flu outbreaks usually are seasonal (occurring during the winter months) and involve variants of flu viruses to which most human populations already have been exposed. Thus, most individuals have some immunity to these strains. Even though seasonal flu outbreaks lead to 36,000 deaths on average each year, health care systems are able to handle the number of cases that occur within the general population. Worldwide outbreaks of new influenza subtypes are rare, but lead to much higher rates of infection and death. Because these outbreaks affect large numbers of people around the world they are called “pandemics”. Rates of infection with new variants of flu, such as those that have caused previous pandemics, are much higher because most people have little or no pre-existing immunity. In addition, since the disease spreads easily and quickly, health care systems can be overwhelmed by the number of patients needing hospitalization. Reference: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Flu Information. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

13 Global Significance Zoonotic diseases are increasingly becoming more of a world problem due to several factors. More people so more reservoirs for disease & transmission. Economic instability = breakdowns in public health. Lack of resources: encroaching on “wild” areas. Increased # of elderly and immuno-compromised people who are more easily infected with disease. Larger numbers of people and animals in close contact. Much easier to travel/ship and pass diseases.

14 MEASLES in U.S.A From January 1 to January 23, 2015, 68 people from 11 states were reported to have measles. Most of these cases are part of a large, ongoing outbreak linked to an amusement park in California


16 What’s the big deal? highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus. In 1980, before widespread vaccination, measles caused an estimated 2.6 million deaths each year. The disease remains one of the leading causes of death among young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Approximately 145 700 people died from measles in 2013 – mostly children under the age of 5. The most serious complications include blindness, encephalitis (an infection that causes brain swelling), severe diarrhea or severe respiratory infections such as pneumonia. 

17 TED talk…virus hunter On a piece of loose leaf write down 5-10 statements/questions. Things that were interesting or news to you or that you have questions about. Put it in the bin at the end of the video. About 15 minutes idea from here. PBL

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