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Conjunctions الروابـــــــــط Conjunctions are words which are use to connect words or clauses together in a sentence. You can use conjunction to link.

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Presentation on theme: "Conjunctions الروابـــــــــط Conjunctions are words which are use to connect words or clauses together in a sentence. You can use conjunction to link."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Conjunctions الروابـــــــــط

3 Conjunctions are words which are use to connect words or clauses together in a sentence. You can use conjunction to link words, phrases And clauses, as in the following example : الروابط هي كلمات تستخدم لربط الكلمات أو العبارات في الجملة. ويمكن استخدام الرابط لربط كلمتين أو شبه جملة و أخرى أو عبارتين ، كما في الأمثلة التالية : * I ate the pizza and the pasta. * Call the movers when you are ready. Conjunctions are divided into three parts types according to the Complexity of the conjunction. تنقسم الروابط إلى ثلاث أنواع حسب تشابك الرابط في الجملة.

4 الروابط التنسيقية Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunction are used to join individual words, phrases, and Independent clauses. Coordinating conjunctions are ( and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet ) تستخدم الحروف التنسيقية لربط الكلمات و أشباه الجمل والعبارات المفردة. أمثلة * I asked Ahmed to give me the pen and the book. * He can speak English, but I don’t know English. *You can go by bus, or you can walk.

5 الروابط التابعة Subordinating conjunction A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause (s) and the dependent clause (s). الرابط التابع يعرف العبارة التابعة و يوضح طبيعة العلاقة بين العبارة التابعة والعبارة الأساسية في الجملة. ( after, although, as, because, before, how, if, since, than, that, though, Till, until, while, when, where, whether ). أمثلة * After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent. * If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday. *Ali had to begin his thesis over again when his computer crashed. * As soon as I arrive in Cairo I visited Ahmed. * Although they have two children, they want to get more babies. لاحظ أن في هذا النوع من الروابط لا يمكن وضع الرابط في عبارة بمفرده حيث أنه تابعة فتكون غير مكتملة و تحتاج إلى عبارة أساسية لإكمالها.

6 اليك بعض الروابط و استخداماتها في الجمل : * كلا من و Both ….. and ….. Both Ali and Ahmed are good friends. لا ولا Neither ….. nor …… Neither Ahmed nor Ali has speaks English. لاحظ أنه مع الرابط ( neither.. nor ) يأتي الفعل في المفرد. * ليس فقط..... ولكن Not only …. but also He not only has gone to the cinema, but also he has gone to the club. لاحظ عندما تأتي not only في بداية الجملة يأتي بعدها الفعل المساعد للفعل في الزمن المستخدم. Not only did he go to the library, But he also read an essay for Milton. * و أيضا ، وكذلك ، مثل As well as My father is interested in music, as well as my uncle. My father, as well as my uncle, interested in music.

7 * على الرغم من Though, although *Though he is very good in English, he doesn’t get the full marks in the test. *Although Ali is an Egyptian, he lives in America all the time. * على الرغم من However +adjective / adverb *However slowly he drives, he arrives work in time. *However beautiful she is, she has not married yet. *However hard the exam is, Ali has got the full marks. لاحظ أن However و although لهما نفس المعنى و لكن الأولى يأتي بعدها الفاعل ثم الفعل ، أما الثانية يأتي بعدها الصفة أو الحال يتبعه الفاعل ثم الفعل لاحظ المثال التالي : ِ * Although he is a successful businessman, he has lost his money. *However successful he is, he has lost his money.

8 * و بالتالي.. لذلك Thus, so, therefore, as a result, consequently * Ali studies hard, so he gets high marks every exam. * He ate bad meat, therefore he fell ill. * He speaks English fluently, so he was employed in a big company. * بالرغم من... Despite, in spite of … * Despite his success, he didn’t get high marks. * In spite of his great strength, he couldn’t open gate. * In spite of feeling tired, we decided to get out. * Nuclear power stations are built despite widespread opposition.

9 * لا و لا..... Either ….. or * Either Ali or Ahmed is speaks English well. لاحظ أن الفعل يأتي مع هذا الضمير في حالة المفرد * عندمــــــا When * He went to the cinema, when the accident occurred. * بينمـــــا While, as *While I was walking home, I met my father and his friend. * As I was studying my lessons, some one turned of the lamp.

10 * قبــل Before * Before I went to school, I had had breakfast. * Ali had slept well before he went to work. لاحظ أن العبارة التابعة التي تأتي بعد كلمة before تكون في زمن الماضي البسيط و يأتي فعل العبارة التالية في زمن الماضي التام ، أي أن الفعل الذي يحدث أولا يكون في الماضي التام و الذي يليه يكون في زمن الماضي البسيط. * بعـــد ، بمجرد أن.. After, as soon as * After I had finished my study in the university, I went to France. * I went to the cinema after I had finished my homework. * As soon as he had arrived at the airport, we invited him for dinner. لاحظ أن الرابط after يأتي بعده الفعل في زمن الماضي التام و فعل العبارة التالية في زمن الماضي البسيط. أذا كانت الروابط when, before, after, as soon as يأتي بعدها الفعل في زمن المضارع البسيط ثم يأتي فعل العبارة التالية في زمن المستقبل : We will look for a taxi as soon as the train arrives.

11 * حتــــى Until, till * We did not have lunch until he had come. * We will not have lunch till they come. لاحظ أن الزمن يختلف مع until * لم يكد حتى No sooner.. Than, hardly.. when, scarcely.. When * He had no sooner finished his study, than he traveled to France. * No sooner had I walked in the door than the phone rang. * She had hardly arrived when she started talking about leaving. * Hardly had the men started training when they were sent to battle. *She had scarcely arrived at the station, when the train cam لاحظ الكلمات السابقة جميعا عبارتين أحدهما في الماضي البسيط والثانية في المضي التام لاحظ عند بدء الجملة بالفاعل مع الروابط السابقة فاننا نضعها بين الفعل الأساسي و الفعل المسا عد للعبارة التي في زمن الماضي التام ز. وعندما نبدأ بها الجملة يأتي بعدها الفعل المساعد ثم الفاعل ثم الفعل ، وبعد ذلك نضع تكملة الرابط when أو than

12 * لكـــي So that * She works hard in her study so that she could get high marks. * Ali travelled to England so that he might resume his studies in biology. * خشية أن Lest, for fear that * She wore heavy clothes for fear that she might catch cold. * He works very hard lest he would miss his position. * سواء... أم لم Whether … or not * Whether they come with or not, we will go to the cinema. * I will go to the party whether they invite me or not.

13 * جداًً لدرجة أن So + Adjective + that * She is so beautiful that all men want to marry her. * He is so excellent that he got full marks in all subjects. * جدا لدرجة أن... Such a + adjective + that.. * She is such a beautiful girl that all men want to marry her. * He is such an excellent student that he got full marks in all subjects. لاحظ يمكن بدء الجملة بـ so أو such كما يلي : * So beautiful is she that all men want to marry her. * Such a beautiful girl is she that all men want to marry her. لاحظ عند البدء بـ so تأتي بعدها الصفة ثم الفعل ثم الفاعل. و عند البدء بـ such يأتي بعدها الصفة ثم الفاعل ثم الفعل.

14 * جدا لدرجة أنه لا يمكن Too + adjective + to * This test is too hard to answer. * The tea is too hot to drink. * كافي لـ.... Enough to…., enough for.. * This money is enough for you. * This money is enough to buy the book. * This money is enough for you to buy the book. لاحظ ان enough to يأتي بعدها الفعل أما enough for يأتي بعدها الاسم * منـــذ Since * He hasn’t come to the club since his father was ill. * He didn’t come to the club since last week. لاحظ أن الرابط since يأتي بعده ماضي بسيط و قبله مضارع تام. لاحظ أن الرابط since يأتي بعده نقطة زمنية معينة last week, last month,1999


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