Presentation on theme: "“HONOUR” BASED VIOLENCE AND FORCED MARRIAGE"— Presentation transcript:
1“HONOUR” BASED VIOLENCE AND FORCED MARRIAGE Zahra Rasouli– IKWRO24 September 2014
2Iranian & Kurdish Women’s Rights Organisation (IKWRO) Is a registered charity set up in 2002Provides holistic advice, advocacy and intensive case work for Middle Eastern (Iranian, Kurdish, Turkish, Arab and Afghan) women and girls at risk of Domestic Violence, Forced & Child Marriage, Female Genital Mutilation and “Honour”-based ViolenceProvides counselling in Farsi/Dari, Kurdish, Arabic and EnglishProvides training for professionals, women-only groups and Middle Eastern communitiesIKWRO campaigns to change laws and policies and for women’s rights & equality
3What is the definition of ‘Honour’? According to the Oxford dictionary, “honour” is:“High respect; great esteem”“The quality of knowing and doing what is morally right”“Something regarded as a rare opportunity and bringing pride and pleasure; a privilege.”“ Izzat”, “Namous”, “Sharaff” – why is the word ‘honour’ used in describing killing?whose honor? What is honorable about murder?
4What is “Honour” Based Violence? (Contd) Why do we call it ‘honour’ based violence?(and not ‘domestic’ violence or forced marriage)?To confront and clarify HBV without any misperceptions within practicing communitiesTo raise awareness with those who are at riskTo educate the wider societyThere is no honour, only dishonour in ‘honour’ killingIKWRO
5What is ‘Honour’ Based Violence? Defined by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) :“An incident or crime which has or may have been committed to protect or defend the honour of the family and/or community.”
6What is ‘Honour’-Based Violence? Definition by IKWRO:‘Honour’-Based Violence is any act of incidents and crimes committed predominantly against women and girls by their family or their community, often collectively, to defend their perceived honour because it is believed the person has done something to bring shame on the family or the community.It can take many forms including: ‘honour’ killing, forced marriage,rape (group), forced suicide, acid attacks, mutilation, imprisonment, abduction, beatings, death threats, blackmail, emotional abuse, surveillance, harassment, disownment and forced abortion.
7‘Cultural’ and political justifications: Patriarchal power, control over women and girlsCulture-dogma-no remorseFear:Political CorrectnessFear:Professionals' fear of being accused of being Racists‘HBV cases are too complex for us to intervene’!!!It does not happenEx: attention seeking adult (police, safeguarding nurseUnstable; drunk; why noone speaks about it-it is not trueUniversal Women’s Rights, Human Rights.
8Forced Marriage not accepting it may lead to HBV people forced into marriage are the potential victims of HBVA marriage in which one or both spouses do not (or, in the case of some adults with learning or physical disabilities, cannot) consent to the marriage and duress is involved. Duress can include physical, psychological, financial, sexual and emotional pressure.Arranged MarriageA marriage in which families take a leading role, but the parties have the free will and choice to accept or decline the arrangement.Multi-Agency Practice Guidelines: Handling Cases of Forced Marriage (June 2009)A Forced Marriage is an Arranged marriage, but an Arranged Marriage is not a Forced Marriage.
9Why do forced marriages happen? To control unwanted behaviour and sexuality particularly that of women, and to prevent ‘unsuitable’ relationshipsTo uphold family honour or long-standing family commitmentsBecause of peer group or family pressureTo protect perceived cultural or religious idealsTo attempt to strengthen family linksTo ensure wealth & land remain within the familyTo assist claims for residence and citizenshipTo provide a carer for a disabled family member and to reduce the ‘stigma’ of disability
10Honour Based Violence Statistics in the UK 5000 honour killings recorded per year worldwide (UN 2003)At least 12 honour killings per year in the UK (HO 2004)IKWRO has dealt with 2,200 cases via its telephone advice line. We have provided face-to-face intensive casework to over 653 women of whom 145 were at a high risk of HBV. The majority of these women were years of age (2012)The Forced Marriage Unit (FMU) dealt with over 1,485 cases in 2012Honour Network helpline dealt with 5600 calls in 2012
11Honour Based Violence Statistics in the UK A survey of police forces by IKWRO found that at least 2,823 incidents of HBV were recorded by police (2011)Only 4.85% of those recorded cases led to conviction.It is said that Asian women are 2-3 times more likely to commit suicide or to self-harm than other womenStatistics suggest that Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) victims of domestic violence have 17 points of contact with services before they are helped; the figure stands at 11 contacts for white women (Brittain, 2005)
12Who are the victims of HBV & FM? Within Middle Eastern, South Asian, Eastern European and Traveller communities in the UK:WomenYoung womenChildrenMenPeople with disabilitiesGay, lesbian and trans-gender peopleAnyone who attempts to help them-within the familyAny more?
13Perpetrator/s are usually: Male family members (father, brother, husband, uncles, cousins)Women family members (mother, sister, in laws, etc.)Bounty huntersContract killersMembers of victims’ communitiesPeople under the order of community leadersAny more?
14Triggers - What is seen as ‘dishonour’: “Inappropriate” make-up or dress, going outTalking to a boy (or a girl), or to a strangerExpressions of sexual autonomy, public displays of affectionHaving a boyfriendResisting a forced marriageSex outside marriage, i.e. losing virginity, adultery, pregnancyBeing a victim of rape
15Triggers - What is seen as ‘dishonour’, contd: HomosexualitySeeking divorce(even in the event of domestic abuse)Reporting/fleeing domestic violence or forced marriageAutonomy with respect to education/employmentRumours or even suspicions of any of the above
16Triggers – Forced Marriage, cont’d: Child/ girl missing school regularlyChild/ girl does not return from holidayEmployer receiving unexpected leave request and noting employee anxietyDoctor or nurse noting patient is always accompanied by guardian.Evidence of self-harmSocial Services seeing runawayOlder siblings all married early
17Barriers to victims seeking protection: Underestimating the threatFear of dishonouring family, ostracised by friends and the communityFear of losing children, family and friendsFeelings of guilt and shameConstant control by the familyFear of lack of confidentiality /sharing information with family
18Barriers to victims seeking protection, contd: Poor perception/lack of trust of police and other agencies able to helpLack of resources including safe accommodationLanguage barriersLack of recourse to public fundsImmigration status (mis-spelling in the handout-sorry about it)Fear of being found after leaving
19Psychological impact Living in fear Mistrusting everyone (feeling of being controlled, watched, followed…)Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, flashbacks, nightmares, hyper-vigilanceIsolation, loneliness, shame and silenceLosing self-esteemSelf-blame, feelings of guiltSelf harm, suicidal feelings
20Responding to HBV Cases, who can help? frontline PoliceSocial ServicesChildren’s servicesEducation professionals e.g. teachers, school counsellors, education advisors, etc.Health professionals, e.g. doctors, counsellors, midwives, nurses, health visitors, etc.Local Authorities, e.g. welfare and housing agenciesUK Border Agencies (the Home Office)Voluntary organisations, and many moreYou can help!
21Victim-Centred Approach How to stop HBV: 3P’sPrevention: Preventing crime and saving victims, changing the mindset of communities-educating girls and boys- IKWRO’s campaign focus for this year – national cirruculumProtection: Full protection and support for victims –well trained, sensitive workers with a victim centred approach-without judging them-people who has the ability to consider situations from a wider perspectiveProsecution: Implementing law and policies, investigating and prosecuting crimes, holding perpetrators accountable (Law Enforcement) and adequate protection for witnessesVictim-Centred Approach
22Prevention: Preventing crime and saving victims Believe themTreat potential victims with sensitivity and seriousnessBe culturally sensitiveReassure them about confidentiality. Speak to individuals alone and not in the presence of family and friendsDo not disclose any information to family and friendsListen carefully and pick up key words e.g.: rape, forced marriage, throwing acid, imprisonment, abduction, beatings, death threats, blackmailing, surveillance, harassment , controlling behaviours, and “honour” killings, etc.Arrange for an interpreter carefully and check them with the victim. Remind them about confidentiality, neutrality, word-for-word accuracy, non-advocacy- an interpreter not from the community-they fail to translate-gender of the interpreter-that’s it you have one choice-Clients may be quite, afraid to talk-be patient, do not get angry with them-it is not because they are not cooperative it is because they are suppressed- years and years of abuse
23Protection: Full protection and support for victims Never use family members as translatorsTake action immediatelyInform the victim of your actionInvolve police and social services if appropriate (recording and flagging)Do a risk assessment, Safety Plan & Risk managementHBV is also a child protection issue. Refer to Child Protection Procedures if appropriateArrange for safe accommodationConsult with or refer to expert organisations such as IKWRO and the Forced Marriage Unit
24Making Effective Referrals Consider the needs of the client/sTo avoid duplication record carefully all the information you have gathered from the clientsInform the clients of the referral and listen to any concernsWhen using interpreters, use a trusted source and check with your clientAlways check an organisations’ expertise and understanding of HBV and FM before making any referralsGive preference to gender specialist organisationsDo not refer clients at risk of HBV, FM and FGM to community centers and religious establishmentsAlways follow upPay attention
25Lets have a look at the Useful law enforcement in ‘honour’ based violence and forced marriage:Children ActAbduction, Kidnapping, Assault, Harassment, Stalking, Threat to Kill, Sexual Offences, Rape ActsForced Marriage Civil Act/ Forced Marriage Criminal ActWard of CourtHolding PassportsProsecutionWitness ProtectionRestricted Freedom/House Arrest
26THERE MAY ONLY BE ONE CHANCE TO HELP Conclusion:Do Not:Attempt to mediate or to colludeShare information without the consent of the victimBefore sending letters, s, texts or leaving messages make sure it is safe (perpetrators are controlling)-perps call us –”this is the last number my wife calledAllow yourself to be affected by your perceptions of cultural difference – remain professionalBe judgmentalDismiss their fears, and NEVER send them back into harmful environmentsEVER use family members as translatorsEVER approach family or community leadersEVER underestimate the perpetrator/s of HBVPay attention-ListenTHERE MAY ONLY BE ONE CHANCE TO HELP
27Conclusion Checklist: Staff Training & Awareness RaisingSignposting Practice GuidelinesMonitoring and EvaluationRecord KeepingRisk Assessment – on-going/linksConfidentialityVictim-centred ApproachDanger of Family MediationAgency-specific requirementsConsult with expert organisations:IKWRO, Forced Marriage UnitStatutory GuidanceSAVE LIVES!
28Iranian &Kurdish Women’s Rights Organisation (IKWRO) www. ikwro. org Iranian &Kurdish Women’s Rights Organisation (IKWRO) Tel: