Presentation on theme: "Conception, Pregnancy, & Childbirth. PA Standards: 10.1.12 – Analyze factors that impact growth and development between adolescence and adulthood NETS:"— Presentation transcript:
PA Standards: 10.1.12 – Analyze factors that impact growth and development between adolescence and adulthood NETS: 2. Communication and Collaboration, 6. Technology concepts and operations. Academic Standards
Directions Navigate the slide show using the buttons and/or links. Read all information carefully. Complete guided note packet. Answer the quiz questions throughout the slide show.
Part 1: Conception In the female, one ovum matures and is released from an ovary each month. This is called ovulation. Conception or fertilization occurs when a sperm unites with an ovum in the fallopian tube. At conception heredity is determined.
Conception - Heredity Heredity is the passing of characteristics from biological parents to their children. All body cells, except sperm and ova, contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 chromosomes in all. Sperm and ova contain only 23 chromosomes in all, not 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Conception – Chromosomes & Genes A chromosome is a threadlike structure that carries genes. A gene is a unit of hereditary material (information). In a female, the 23 pairs of chromosomes are identical. In a male, one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes are not identical.
Conception – Sex Chromosomes In both males and females, one pair of chromosomes is called the sex chromosomes. Female sex chromosomes are identical and are XX. Every ovum produced by a female contains an X sex chromosome. Male sex chromosomes are not identical and are XY. Sperm produced by males contain either an X sex chromosome or a Y sex chromosome.
Conception – X or Y The sex of a baby is determined by the X or Y sex chromosome it receives from the father. When a sperm fertilizes an ovum, 23 chromosomes from dad and 23 chromosomes from mom are combined to make 23 pairs of chromosomes. One of those 23 pairs are the sex chromosomes. If a sperm with an X sex chromosome fertilizes the ovum it will have XX sex chromosomes. If a sperm with a Y sex chromosome fertilizes the ovum it will have XY sex chromosomes.
Question 1: Click the correct answer. XX = Girl XY = Boy XX= Boy XY= Girl
Part 2: Pregnancy After conception a fertilized egg continues to divide and move down the fallopian tube and into the uterus. The cell divisions are a cluster by the time they reach uterus. These cells attach to the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. The endometrium provides nourishment for the embryo.
Pregnancy Embryo – is the name given to the developing baby through the 2 nd month of growth after conception. Fetus – is the name given a developing baby from the 9 th week until birth.
Pregnancy The placenta is an organ that anchors the embryo to the uterus. The umbilical cord is a ropelike structure that connects the embryo to the placenta. The umbilical cord carries nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and carries its waste away.
Pregnancy Prenatal care is the care that is given to the mother-to-be and baby before birth. Prenatal care includes: –routine medical examinations –proper nutrition –reasonable exercise –extra rest and relaxation –Childbirth and child care education –Avoidance of drugs and other risk behaviors –Practicing common sense
Question 3: Click the correct answer. What is the organ that anchors the embryo to the uterus called? Fallopian Tube UterusPlacentaAmentum
Part 3: Childbirth Labor is the process of childbirth. There are three stages to childbirth.
Childbirth Stage 1 – Dilation of the cervix Stage 2 – Delivery of the baby Stage 3 – Delivery of the placenta
Childbirth – Stage 1 The dilatation of the cervix is the longest stage. It could last from 2 hours to an entire day. The cervical opening enlarges 8-10 centimeters, wide enough for the baby to pass through.
Childbirth – Stage 2 The baby is delivered head first. Crowning is the appearance of the baby’s head during delivery. Once the baby has been eased out and begins to breathe on its own, the umbilical cord is cut.
Childbirth – Stage 3 The third stage of labor is the expulsion of the afterbirth. The afterbirth is the placenta that is expelled after delivery. If it does not occur naturally, the physician removes it.
Complications During Pregnancy & Childbirth Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) –Severe birth defects in babies born to mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy –FAS includes Damage to the brain and to the nervous system Facial abnormalities Small head size Below normal I.Q. Poor coordination Heart defects Behavior problems
Complications During Pregnancy & Childbirth Ectopic Pregnancy –Follow the link below to read and learn about an ectopic pregnancy. –http://www.kidshealth. org/parent/pregnancy_ newborn/pregnancy/ec topic.html http://www.kidshealth. org/parent/pregnancy_ newborn/pregnancy/ec topic.htmlhttp://www.kidshealth. org/parent/pregnancy_ newborn/pregnancy/ec topic.html
Complications During Pregnancy & Childbirth Rh Incompatibility –Is a mismatch between the blood of a pregnant female and the blood of the fetus. –Antibodies attack a substance in the developing baby’s blood. –An injection is given to the female to prevent risk during the future. Toxemia of Pregnancy –Is a condition caused by a rise in the female’s blood pressure, swelling, and leakage of protein into the urine. –Untreated toxemia can result in death of the female or the developing baby.
Complications During Pregnancy & Childbirth Miscarriage –Is the natural ending of a pregnancy before a baby is developed enough to survive on its own. –Miscarriages most often occur in the first trimester. –Miscarriages may be caused by a defect in the fetus or a medical condition of the fetus or pregnant female. Stillbirth –Is a fully developed baby born dead. –Stillbirths may be caused by a defect in the baby or a medical condition of the fetus or pregnant female.
Complications During Pregnancy & Childbirth Cesarean Section –Is a procedure in which a baby is removed surgically form the mother. –A physician makes a surgical incision through the mothers abdomen and uterus and removes the baby.
Childbirth – Multiple Births Some pregnancies result in multiple births. 2 babies born at the same time are called twins. Identical twins are babies that develop from the same egg. This results in twins of the same sex, identical chromosomes, and similar appearance.
Childbirth – Multiple Births Fraternal Twins are 2 babies that develop when 2 ova are fertilized by 2 different sperm. Fraternal twins may or may not be the same sex and usually do not look alike.
Childbirth – Multiple Births 3 babies are called triplets. Imagine planning for one baby and then finding out you will have three.
Childbirth – Multiple Births 7 babies would be septuplets. This photo of 8 babies depicts octuplets. Can you imaging the time and financial demand of multiple births.
Fun Fact – Believe it or not… A peasant named Kirilow was presented to the empress of Russia in 1853 for the following reason. He had been married twice. His first wife bore fifty seven children, including four sets of quadruplets, seven sets of triplets, and two sets of twins. His second wife gave birth to fifteen children-six sets of twins and one set of triplets. At the time of his presentation to the empress, all seventy two of Kirilow's children were still alive.
Question 4: Click the correct answer. What are the 3 stages of child birth? A. 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd, Trimesters B. Dilation of cervix, delivery of baby, and delivery of placenta. C. Intercourse, conception, and birth.