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1 HVACR316 - Piping Piping and Fitting. 2 Copper Tubing Copper tubing was developed in the 1920s to provide an alternative to iron piping in a variety.

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Presentation on theme: "1 HVACR316 - Piping Piping and Fitting. 2 Copper Tubing Copper tubing was developed in the 1920s to provide an alternative to iron piping in a variety."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 HVACR316 - Piping Piping and Fitting

2 2 Copper Tubing Copper tubing was developed in the 1920s to provide an alternative to iron piping in a variety of uses.

3 3 Desirable Features of Copper Good pressure and temperature rating for typical hydronic applications. Good resistance to corrosion from water-based system fluids. Smooth inner walls that offer low flow resistance. Good pressure and temperature rating for typical hydronic applications. Good resistance to corrosion from water-based system fluids. Smooth inner walls that offer low flow resistance.

4 4 Desirable Features of Copper Lighter than steel or iron piping of equivalent size. Can be joined by the well-known technique of soft soldering. Lighter than steel or iron piping of equivalent size. Can be joined by the well-known technique of soft soldering.

5 5 Copper Pipe Size Copper pipe is available in a wide range of sizes and wall thicknesses. The type of tubing used in hydronic heating is known as water tube. Copper pipe is available in a wide range of sizes and wall thicknesses. The type of tubing used in hydronic heating is known as water tube.

6 6 ASTM B88 In the United States, copper water tube is manufactured according to strict standards. This standard is known as ASTM B88. ASTM stands for American Society for Testing and Materials In the United States, copper water tube is manufactured according to strict standards. This standard is known as ASTM B88. ASTM stands for American Society for Testing and Materials

7 7 ASTM B88 According to ASTMB88, the copper water pipe size refers to the nominal inside diameter of the pipe. The word “nominal” means that the measured inside diameter is approximately equal to the stated pipe size. According to ASTMB88, the copper water pipe size refers to the nominal inside diameter of the pipe. The word “nominal” means that the measured inside diameter is approximately equal to the stated pipe size.

8 8 Copper Tube Sizing The outside diameter (O.D.) of copper water tubing is always 1/8” inch larger than the nominal inside diameter (I.D.). For example, the O.D. of ¾” inch type M copper tubing is.875 inches This is exactly 7/8” inches, or 1/8” inch larger than the nominal pipe size. The outside diameter (O.D.) of copper water tubing is always 1/8” inch larger than the nominal inside diameter (I.D.). For example, the O.D. of ¾” inch type M copper tubing is.875 inches This is exactly 7/8” inches, or 1/8” inch larger than the nominal pipe size.

9 9 Copper Tubing Wall Thickness Copper water tube is available in three wall thicknesses designated as type K, L, and M in order of decreasing wall thicknesses. The outside diameter of K, L and M tubing are identical. This allows all three types of tubing to be compatible with the same fittings and valves. Copper water tube is available in three wall thicknesses designated as type K, L, and M in order of decreasing wall thicknesses. The outside diameter of K, L and M tubing are identical. This allows all three types of tubing to be compatible with the same fittings and valves.

10 10 Copper M tubing Because operating pressures of residential and light commercial hydronic heating systems are relatively low, the thinnest wall copper tube (type M) is most often used. This wall thickness provides several times the pressure rating of other common hydronic system components. Because operating pressures of residential and light commercial hydronic heating systems are relatively low, the thinnest wall copper tube (type M) is most often used. This wall thickness provides several times the pressure rating of other common hydronic system components.

11 11 Hard Drawn Tubing Two common hardness grades of copper water tube are available: hard drawn and soft drawn tubing. Hard drawn tubing is supplied in straight lengths of 10 and 20 feet. Because of its straightness and strength, hard drawn tubing is the most commonly used type of copper tubing in hydronic systems. Two common hardness grades of copper water tube are available: hard drawn and soft drawn tubing. Hard drawn tubing is supplied in straight lengths of 10 and 20 feet. Because of its straightness and strength, hard drawn tubing is the most commonly used type of copper tubing in hydronic systems.

12 12 Hard-Drawn Copper Tubing

13 13 Soft-Drawn Copper Tubing So-called soft drawn tubing is annealed during manufacturing to allow it to be formed with simple bending tools. It is useful in situations where awkward angles do not allow proper tubing alignment with standard fittings. So-called soft drawn tubing is annealed during manufacturing to allow it to be formed with simple bending tools. It is useful in situations where awkward angles do not allow proper tubing alignment with standard fittings.

14 14 Annealing In the cases of copper, annealing is performed by substantially heating the material (generally until glowing) and allowing it to cool. Unlike ferrous metals, which must be cooled slowly to anneal, copper can be cooled slowly in air or quickly by quenching in water. The metal is softened and prepared for further work, such as shaping, stamping, or forming. In the cases of copper, annealing is performed by substantially heating the material (generally until glowing) and allowing it to cool. Unlike ferrous metals, which must be cooled slowly to anneal, copper can be cooled slowly in air or quickly by quenching in water. The metal is softened and prepared for further work, such as shaping, stamping, or forming.

15 15 Annealed Copper Tubing

16 16 Hard Drawn Copper Tubing Support Horizontal runs of copper hard drawn tubing must be supported at a maximum of every 12’. Vertical runs of copper hard drawn tubing must be supported at a maximum of every 10’. Always refer to local code for proper spacing. Horizontal runs of copper hard drawn tubing must be supported at a maximum of every 12’. Vertical runs of copper hard drawn tubing must be supported at a maximum of every 10’. Always refer to local code for proper spacing.

17 17 Hard Drawn Copper Tubing Support These support spacings do not include any allowances for the extra weight of other system components, such as circulators or expansion tanks. When such components are present, the piping should be supported immediately adjacent to the component. These support spacings do not include any allowances for the extra weight of other system components, such as circulators or expansion tanks. When such components are present, the piping should be supported immediately adjacent to the component.

18 18 Soft Drawn Copper Tubing Support Copper soft drawn tubing 1 ¼” and smaller on a horizontal run must be supported at a maximum of every 6’. Copper soft drawn tubing 1 ½” and larger on a horizontal run must be supported at a maximum of every 10’. Vertical spacing for all sizes is 10’. Copper soft drawn tubing 1 ¼” and smaller on a horizontal run must be supported at a maximum of every 6’. Copper soft drawn tubing 1 ½” and larger on a horizontal run must be supported at a maximum of every 10’. Vertical spacing for all sizes is 10’.

19 19 Pipe Support Materials A number of different supports are available for copper tubing.

20 20 Split rings Bell hanger J hook Clevis hanger Adjustable strap 2 hole pipe strap Common Pipe Supports

21 21 Copper strap Two hole plastic strap Pipe insulator Vertical pipe support Strut cushion clamp Common Pipe Supports

22 22 Common Pipe Fittings Many of the pipe fittings used in hydronic systems are the same as used in conventional water supply systems.

23 23 Couplings: (Standard and Reducing) Standard Reducer coupling

24 24 Elbows: 90 Degree and 45 Degree 90 degree 45 degree

25 25 Street Elbows: (90 and 45 Degrees) Street 90Street 45

26 26 Tees: (Standard and Reducing) Standard Reducing Tee

27 27 Threaded Adapters: (Male and Female) Male adapter Female adapter

28 28 Unions

29 29 Ball Valves Sweat ball valve NPT ball valve

30 30 Gate Valve

31 31 Boiler Drain Valve

32 32 Boiler Drain T

33 33 Baseboard Elbow


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