2History1985. Proposed.1988. Initiated and funded by NIH and US Dept. of Energy ($3 billion set aside)1990. Work begins.1998. Celera announces a 3-year plan to complete the project earlyPublished in Science and Nature in February, 2001The quest for genome sequencing was being pursued simultaneously in over 20 laboratories in six countries
3GoalsA primary goal of the Human Genome Project is to make a series of descriptive diagrams—maps—of each human chromosome at increasingly finer resolutions.After mapping is completed, the next step is to determine the base sequence of each of the ordered DNA fragments.The ultimate goal of genome research is to find all the genes in the DNA sequence and to develop tools for using this information in the study of human biology and medicine.
4GoalsCreate physical map of the 24 human chromosomes (22 autosomes, X & Y)Identify the entire set of genes & map them all to their chromosomesDetermine the nucleotide sequence of the estimated 3 billion base pairsAnalyze genetic variation among humansMap and sequence the genomes of model organisms
6Model organisms Bacteria (E. coli, influenza, several others) Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)Plant (Arabidopsis thaliana)Roundworm (Caenorhabditis elegans)Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)Mouse (Mus musculus)
7How they did it… DNA from 5 humans 2 males, 3 females Cut up DNA with restriction enzymesLigated into BACs & YACs, then grew them upSequenced the BACsLet a supercomputer put the pieces together
8Cut segments inserted into BACs DNACut segments inserted into BACsLots of overlapKnown sequence
9Sequencing Technologies Sequencing procedures currently involve first subcloning DNA fragments from a cosmid or bacteriophage library into special sequencing vectors that carry shorter pieces of the original cosmid fragments.The next step is to make the subcloned fragments into sets of nested fragments differing in length by one nucleotide, so that the specific base at the end of each successive fragment is detectable after the fragments have been separated by gel electrophoresis.
10Sequencing Technologies The two basic sequencing approaches, Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger, differ primarily in the way the nested DNA fragments are produced.Maxam-Gilbert sequencing (also called thechemical degradation method) uses chemicalsto cleave DNA at specific bases, resulting in fragments of different lengths. A refinement to the Maxam-Gilbert method known as multiplex sequencing enables investigators to analyze about 40 clones on a single DNA sequencing gel.Sanger sequencing (also called the chain termination or dideoxy method) involves using an enzymatic procedure to synthesize DNA chains of varying length in four different reactions, stopping the DNA replication at positions occupied by one of the four bases, and then determining the resulting fragment lengths.
12Sequencing Technologies Meeting Human Genome Project sequencing goals by 2003 has required continual improvements in sequencing speed, reliability, and costs.Previously, standard methods were based on separating DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis, which was extremely labor intensive and expensive. Total sequencing output in the community was about 200 Mb for In January 2003, the DOE Joint Genome Institute alone sequenced 1.5 billion bases for the month.Gel-based sequencers use multiple tiny (capillary) tubes to run standard electrophoretic separations. These separations are much faster because the tubes dissipate heat well and allow the use of much higher electric fields to complete sequencing in shorter times.
13How the Code was Decoded DoubleTwist Inc, an application service provider (ASP), devoted to empower life scientists, completed the first annotation of the human genome.The DoubleTwist human genome database was created using Sun Enterprise 420R and 10 K supercomputers, that is, a total of more than 350 processors.It brought to a close an extensive analysis of the available HGP data that revealed genes and other valuable information. The task was accomplished using Sun Enterprise supercomputers, including Starfire servers.
14Genome MapA genome map describes the order of genes or other markers and the spacing between them on each chromosome. Human genome maps are constructed on several different scales or levels of resolution.At the coarsest resolution are genetic linkage maps, which depict the relative chromosomal locations of DNA markers (genes and other identifiable DNA sequences) by their patterns of inheritance. Physical maps describe the chemical characteristics of the DNA molecule itself.
15Genetic MapGenetic linkage maps of each chromosome are made by determining how frequently two markers are passed together from parent to child. Because genetic material is sometimes exchanged during the production of sperm and egg cells, groups of traits (or markers) originally together on one chromosome may not be inherited together.
16Genetic MapThe value of the genetic map is that an inherited disease can be located on the map by following the inheritance of a DNA marker present in affected individuals (but absent in unaffected individuals), even though the molecular basis of the disease may not yet be understood nor the responsible gene identified.
17Physical MapsDifferent types of physical maps vary in their degree of resolution. The lowest-resolution physical map is the chromosomal (sometimes called cytogenetic) map, which is based on the distinctive banding patterns observed by light microscopy of stained chromosomes.A cDNA map shows the locations of expressed DNA regions (exons) on the chromosomal map.The more detailed cosmid contig map depicts the order of overlapping DNA fragments spanning the genome.A macrorestriction map describes the order and distance between enzyme cutting (cleavage) sites.The highest-resolution physical map is the complete elucidation of the DNA base-pair sequence of each chromosome in the human genome. Physical maps are described in greater detail below.
18Restriction Enzymes: Microscopic Scalpels Isolated from various bacteria, restriction enzymes recognize short DNA sequences and cut the DNA molecules at those specific sites. (A natural biological function of these enzymes is to protect bacteria by attacking viral and other foreign DNA.) Some restriction enzymes (rare-cutters) cut the DNA very infrequently, generating a small number of very large fragments (several thousand to a million bp). Most enzymes cut DNA more frequently, thus generating a large number of small fragments (less than a hundred to more than a thousand bp).On average, restriction enzymes with• 4-base recognition sites will yield pieces 256 bases long,• 6-base recognition sites will yield pieces 4000 bases long, and• 8-base recognition sites will yield pieces 64,000 bases long.Since hundreds of different restriction enzymes have been characterized, DNA canbe cut into many different small fragments.
19High-Resolution Physical Mapping The two current approaches to high-resolution physical mapping are termed “top-down” (producing a macrorestriction map) and “bottom-up” (resulting in a contig map). With either strategy (described below) the maps represent ordered sets of DNA fragments that are generated by cutting genomic DNA with restriction enzymes.The fragments are then amplified by cloning or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods (see DNA Amplification). Electrophoretic techniques are used to separate the fragments according to size into different bands, which can be visualized by direct DNA staining or by hybridization with DNA probes of interest. The use of purified chromosomes separated either by flow sorting from human cell lines or in hybrid cell lines allows a single chromosome to be mapped
20Human genome content 1-2 % codes for protein products 24% important for translation75% “junk”Repetitive elementsSatellites (regular, mini-, micro-)TransposonsRetrotransposonsParasites
21There's a Trap, tooThere is concern about the use of genetic information to discriminate against people of a particular race, who are more vulnerable to contracting certain diseases.It may be used for motives, which can be described as "suspect". It can be, for example, used for slowing the process of ageing or for endowing children with capacities, which today are considered "inhuman". But then, for instance, the nuclear power always had two faces.