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Human Genome Project What did they do? Why did they do it? What will it mean for humankind? Animation OverviewAnimation Overview - Click.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Genome Project What did they do? Why did they do it? What will it mean for humankind? Animation OverviewAnimation Overview - Click."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Genome Project What did they do? Why did they do it? What will it mean for humankind? Animation OverviewAnimation Overview - Click

2 Brief history of the work… Proposed in Initiated and funded by NIH and US Dept. of Energy ($3 billion set aside) Work begins. Published in Science and Nature in February, 2001

3 Goals of HGP Create map of the 22 human chromosomes, X / Y) Identify the entire set of genes & map them all to their chromosomes Determine the nucleotide sequences of the estimated 3 billion base pairs Analyze genetic variation among humans

4 Model organisms Bacteria (E. coli, influenza, several others) Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Mouse (Mus musculus)

5 Goals of HGP (cont’d) Develop new laboratory and computing technologies to make all this possible Disseminate genome information Consider ethical, legal, and social issues associated with this research

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9 How they did it… DNA from 5 humans 2 males, 3 females 2 caucasians, one each of asian, african, hispanic Cut up DNA with restriction enzymes Sequenced the fragments Let a supercomputer put the pieces together

10 Human genome content 1-2 % codes for protein products 24% important for translation 75% “junk” Repetitive elements –Transposons –Retrotransposons BOOK THAT WROTE ITSELF

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12 Comparative Genomics

13 Yeast 70 human genes are known to repair mutations in yeast Nearly all we know about cell cycle and cancer comes from studies of yeast Advantages: fewer genes (6000) few introns 31% of yeast genes give same products as human homologues

14 Drosophila nearly all we know of how mutations affect gene function come from Drosophila studies We share 50% of their genes 61% of genes mutated in 289 human diseases are found in fruit flies 68% of genes associated with cancers are found in fruit flies

15 Mouse known as “mini” humans Very similar physiological systems Share 90% of their genes


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