Presentation on theme: "Is this really all that important to know ?"— Presentation transcript:
1Is this really all that important to know ? ServerProgramClientNetworkCPUOperating Systembit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte …MemoryStorageExpansion SlotsMHzApplication SoftwareUploadFTPITNetwork DriveWorld Wide WebInternetetc.
3Will you have to communicate with those you work with?
4Becoming Computer Savvy Understand general computer terms.Have a better sense of computers when buying.Know how to fix ordinary problemsEfficiently use the InternetKnow how to learn new and different programs
5Using Information Technology Chapter 1Introduction to Information TechnologyYour Digital WorldTo the instructor:This presentation attempts to cover every term in the text, sometimes via a slide, sometimes via the Notes page.Additional material beyond what is in the text is presented via either:Occasional “FACTOID” notations on the Notes page or,Occasional hyperlinks in the slides themselves. ScreenTip text has been added to each hyperlink allowing you to see in advance where that link will take you.In addition, the last 20 slides are questions covering the material just presented. They can be used to increase interaction between the instructor and students at the end of each lecture, to ensure students understand the material just presented, etc.Finally, some of the Notes pages include “Discussion questions” for encouraging student interaction during the lecture.
6What is a computer? A programmable machine A machine that accepts input (raw data), processes that input, and produces output (information).
7What is a network?Two or more computers connected together using communications equipment.
8Then along came …Being “online” – using a computer to access information from another computer through the use of a network.The InternetWorld Wide WebInformation technology (“infotech”):IT - Technology that helps in the production, processing, storing, communication and dissemination of information.The E-World (E-business, E-commerce, E-government, E-learning, E-pinions, E-tailing, E-waste)online learning – E-learning, distance learning
9The Internet, the World Wide Web, & the “Plumbing of Cyberspace” encompasses the whole wired and wireless world of communications.Term created by William Gibson – authorNot a commonly used term in the field of Computer Science.InternetA global network of networks (tangible)Do not confuse with WWW.World Wide WebMost common use of the InternetEncompasses information that can be viewed through a web browser (web pages).Do not confuse with the Internet.Internet - a worldwide network that connects hundreds of thousands of smaller networks.The World Wide Web - an interconnected system of computers all over the world that store information in multimedia form.Multimedia (from “multiple media”) - technology that presents information in more than one medium, such as text, still images, moving images, and sound.
101.2 The “All-Purpose Machine”: The Varieties of Computers SupercomputersMainframesWorkstationsMicrocomputersMicrocontrollersFactoid: The fastest computer in the world, which cost $350 million and looks like rows of refrigerator-size boxes, is the NEC Earth Simulator in Yokohama, Japan.Consists of thousands of processors and can carry out several trillion calculations per second.
11Supercomputers Fastest computer Can cost one million to 350 million dollarslooks like rows of refrigerator-size boxesConsists of thousands of processors and can carry out several trillion calculations per second.Used for computer simulationstracking hurricanes, biological contamination, or understanding ocean currents.
12Mainframes Small mainframes (mid-size computers or minicomputers). 5,000 to 5 million dollarsUsed in large organizations – banks, airlines, insurance companies, colleges.Processes billions of instructions per second.Often used with a terminal.
13Workstationsusually used for complex scientific, mathematical, and engineering calculations and for computer-aided designExample: designing airplanes, special effects in moviesWorkstations - expensive, powerful computers usually used for complex scientific, mathematical, and engineering calculations and for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing.Workstations provide capabilities comparable to midsize mainframes. They are used for tasks such as designing airplane fuselages, prescription drugs, and movie special effects.Factoid: In 2003, IBM launched a new mainframe line code-named T-Rex and formally called the z900 models.
14Microcomputer $500 - $5000 Personal Computer (PC) Mac Tower PC Desktop PCLaptop / NotebookPersonal digital assistants (PDAs), also called handheld computers or palmtopsMacWhile a Mac is a PC, most people relate the term, PC, with systems that run the Windows operating system.Microcomputers - also called personal computers. Cost $500 - $5000. Can fit next to a desk or on a desktop, or can be carried around.Tower PC - PC in which the case sits as a “tower,” often on the floor beside a desk, thus freeing up desk space.A Mac is also a PC but PC is commonly used to refer to a computer running a Microsoft operating systemFACTOID: Some computer manufacturers produce PCs called “mini-towers.”Local area network (LAN) - a network connecting, usually by special cable, a group of desktop PCs and other devices, such as printers, in an office or a building.Desktop PC - those in which the case or main housing sits on a desk, with keyboard in front and monitor (screen) often on top. In addition to the desktop PC, microcomputers can also be:Notebook computers, also called laptop computersPersonal digital assistants (PDAs), also called handheld computers or palmtopsThe following pages show pictures of both types of microcomputers.
15Other types of microcomputers. Laptop computers - also called notebook computers. These are lightweight portable computers with built-in monitor, keyboard, hard-disk drive, battery, and AC adapter.Personal Digital AssistantLaptop computer
16Microcontrollerstiny, specialized microprocessors installed in “smart” appliances and automobilesalso called embedded computersMicrocontrollers -also called embedded computers. They are the tiny, specialized microprocessors installed in “smart” appliances and automobiles.
17Servers The word “server” refers to how a computer is used. Server - a central computer that holds collections of data & programs for clientsClients - PCs, workstations, & other devices attached to a serverServer + Clients linked together form a client/server networkDiscussion point: If applicable, the instructor might mention at this point the name of the server being used by the students along with the type (size) of computer it is, and then explain what is stored on the server vs. the clients that the students use.
18How Computers WorkThe purpose of a computer is to process data into information.Data (Input)The raw facts and figures that are processed into informationInformation (Output)Data that has been summarized or otherwise manipulated for use in decision making
19Computers consist of hardware and software. All the machinery and equipment in a computer systemTangibleSoftwareAll the instructions that tell the computer how to perform a taskIntangible
20All computers follow the same five basic operations. InputProcessingStorageOutputCommunicationsInput - whatever is put into (“input”) a computer system.Input hardware - devices that allow people to put data into the computer in a form that the computer can use.Mouse - an input device that is used to manipulate objects viewed on the computer display screen.Keyboard - an input device that converts letters, numbers, and other characters into electrical signals readable by the processor.FACTOID (to accompany hyperlink for Keyboard): Most keyboards were designed with a right-handed computer user in mind. However, approximately 10% of the population is left-handed. Some manufacturers produce keyboards especially for the left-handed computer user. One Web site that offers such keyboards for sale is thelefthand.com. Notice the differences in the left-hand keyboard pictured on their site. The numeric pad has been moved from its normal position on the right-hand side of the keyboard to the left-hand side. Similarly, the arrow keys along with the help, home, page up, page down, etc., keys that are normally adjacent to the numeric pad have been moved to the left-hand side of the keyboard. These two changes would allow a left-handed user to do frequent operations such as numeric data-entry and up/down, left/right movements on the screen with his or her dominant hand—the left one.FACTOID on mouse: A computer mouse may provide one, two, three or more buttons, depending on which system software it is to be used with. Most use two buttons since that is the minimum number needed for working with the popular Microsoft Windows operating system.
21InputKeyboardInput - whatever is put into (“input”) a computer system.Input hardware - devices that allow people to put data into the computer in a form that the computer can use.Mouse - an input device that is used to manipulate objects viewed on the computer display screen.Keyboard - an input device that converts letters, numbers, and other characters into electrical signals readable by the processor.FACTOID (to accompany hyperlink for Keyboard): Most keyboards were designed with a right-handed computer user in mind. However, approximately 10% of the population is left-handed. Some manufacturers produce keyboards especially for the left-handed computer user. One Web site that offers such keyboards for sale is thelefthand.com. Notice the differences in the left-hand keyboard pictured on their site. The numeric pad has been moved from its normal position on the right-hand side of the keyboard to the left-hand side. Similarly, the arrow keys along with the help, home, page up, page down, etc., keys that are normally adjacent to the numeric pad have been moved to the left-hand side of the keyboard. These two changes would allow a left-handed user to do frequent operations such as numeric data-entry and up/down, left/right movements on the screen with his or her dominant hand—the left one.FACTOID on mouse: A computer mouse may provide one, two, three or more buttons, depending on which system software it is to be used with. Most use two buttons since that is the minimum number needed for working with the popular Microsoft Windows operating system.Mouse
22Processing - Manipulating data into information Case or system cabinetthe box that housesthe processor chip(CPU – Central Processing Unit)memory chips (RAM)motherboard with power supplysecondary storage devicesvideo cardEtc. …..Processing - the manipulation a computer does to transform data into information.Case or system cabinet - the box that houses the processor chip (CPU), the memory chips, and the motherboard with power supply, as well as some secondary storage devices.FACTOID: The popular iMac microcomputer manufactured by Apple Computer does not have a case separate from its monitor. Instead, the monitor, CPU, memory chips, motherboard, power supply, hard-disk drive, and CD or CD/DVD drive are all contained in one compact unit.
23Motherboard Motherboard - the main circuit board in the computer. Everything else attaches to the motherboard through connections called ports.Expansion slots - “plugs” on the motherboard for expanding the PC’s capabilities via additional circuit boards.
24Processing Processor chip FrontBackProcessor chip - A tiny piece of silicon that contains millions of miniature electronic circuits.Processor chipA tiny piece of silicon that contains millions of miniature electronic circuits.
25Storage Primary storage Computer circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed and after it has been processedAlso called:Memory or primary memoryRAM – Random Access MemoryTemporary storage
26RAM Memory chips Memory chips: Also known as RAM (Random Access Memory).Represent primary storage or temporary storage.Hold data before processing and information after processing.Memory chips
27Secondary storageThe area in the computer where data or information is held permanentlyAlso simply called:Storage
28Storage capacity is measured in: 1 byte - 1 character is represented using 1 byte.= 8 bits (a bit is a 0 or a 1)1 kilobyte - 1,024 characters.= 210 bytes (approx. 103 bytes)1 megabyte - 1,048,576 characters.= 220 bytes (approx. 106 bytes)1 gigabyte - more than 1 billion characters.= 230 bytes (approx. 109 bytes)1 terabyte - more than 1 trillion characters.= 240 bytes (approx bytes)
29Storage Floppy disk Zip disk Floppy-disk drive - a storage device that stores data on removable 3.5-inch-diameter diskettes.Zip-disk drive - a storage device that stores data on floppy-disk cartridges with times the capacity of the standard floppy.FACTOID: In 1998, Apple Computer introduced a brand new microcomputer named the iMac. Its colorful plastic exterior was hailed as a major design innovation. More controversial was Apple’s decision to not include a floppy-disk drive in the iMac. As a result, many iMac owners have resorted to purchasing external floppy-disk drives or making major modifications to permit an internal floppy-disk drive to be installed.Zip disk
30Storage Hard-disk drive Hard-disk drive - a storage device that stores billions of characters of data on a nonremovable disk platter.Hard-disk drive
31StorageCD (Compact Disk) drive or DVD (Digital Video Disk) drive - a storage device that uses laser technology to read data from optical disks.FACTOID: Many people who have to travel often for work like to take along their laptop computers so that they can make good use of their time while flying in an airplane, waiting at airports, etc. The advent of DVD players in laptops made this an even more attractive alternative, as travelers could carry along a DVD movie for their own personal entertainment. More and more desktop and tower microcomputers are beginning to feature DVD players as well, which further blurs the distinction between a computer and a television. One company that has taken advantage of this increase in computer-based DVD players (accompanied by a similar increase in home-entertainment DVD players) is netflix.com. This WWW-based business is an online substitute for a video rental store. Netflix members pay a fixed amount per month for as many movie DVDs as they can order, watch, and return (in prepaid mailing envelopes) to the company.CD drive
33OutputSpeakers - the devices that play sounds transmitted as electrical signals from the sound card.Speakers
34Speaker output requires a sound card. Output hardware - devices which translate info processed by the computer into a form that humans can understand.Peripheral device - any component or piece of equipment that expands a computer’s input, storage, and output capabilities.Sound card - enhances the computer’s sound-generating capabilities by allowing sound to be output through speakers.Sound card
35OutputMonitor - the display device that takes the electrical signals from the video card and forms an image using points of colored light on the screen.Monitor
36A video card controls the video display of your monitor. Video card - converts the processor’s output information into a video signal that can be sent through a cable to the monitor.
37OutputPrinter - an output device that produces text and graphics on paper.Printer
38CommunicationsModem - a device that sends and receives data over telephone lines to and from computers.
40You still need the software! System softwareHelps the computer perform essential operating tasks and enables the application software to run
41You still need the software! Application softwareEnables you to perform specific tasks--solve problems, perform work, or entertain yourself
42The slides that follow will not be covered in class.
431. 4 Where Is Information Technology Headed 1.4 Where Is Information Technology Headed? Three Directions of Computer DevelopmentMiniaturizationSpeedAffordability1946 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) vs. today’s handheld PDAToday’s PDA is far smaller, faster, and more affordable than the ENIAC.Then (1946)Now
44Three Directions of Communications Development ConnectivityInteractivityMultimediaConnectivity - the ability to connect computers to one another by communications line, so as to provide online information access.Interactivity - two-way communication in which a user can respond to information he or she receives and modify the process.Multimedia - technology that presents information in more than one medium--such as text, pictures, video, sound, and animation--in a single integrated communication.
45When Computers & Communications Combine: Convergence, Portability, & Personalization Convergence - the combining of several industries through various devices that exchange data in the format used by computers. The industries are computers, communications, consumer electronics, entertainment, and mass media.Portability - In the 1980s, portability, or mobility, meant trading off computing power and convenience in return for smaller size and weight. Today, however, experts have predicted that small, powerful, wireless personal electronic devices will transform our lives far more than the personal computer has done so far. The new generation of machines will be truly personal computers, designed for our mobile lives.Personalization - the creation of information tailored to your preferences, such as stock portfolio information kept on Yahoo.com’s Web site.
46“E” Also Stands for Ethics Speed and scaleUnpredictabilityComplexitySpeed and scale => huge amounts of information can be stored => security and privacy concerns.Unpredictability - computers much less reliable than other pervasive technologies such as television and automobiles.Complexity - the more complex, the bigger the potential foul-up.
47Onward: Handling Information in the Era of Pervasive Computing Learn to deal with information overloadHave a strategy to memorize information: reduce dependence on technologyLearn how to make your “multitasking” efficientThe web and the internet bring about an onslaught of promotional and other information on users. They must decide what they need and what to ignore. In addition, overdependence on technology might be counter productive.
48Onward: Handling Information in the Era of Pervasive Computing Be aware that “smart mobs” could also be dumb mobs: Know when technology is being used against you.Discuss the following example: Smart mobile devices could produce groups of people—“smart mobs”—who cooperate in ways never before possible because they carry portable technology that possesses both computing and communications capabilities. Yet there is also the possibility that others—the government, corporate marketers—could transform these devices into weapons against the users. Thus, you need to becomeaware of how security and privacy can be abridged in ways that could transform you from a member of a smart mob to that of a “dumb mob.”
49Concept CheckWhat are the two key components of information technology?Computers and communications
50Concept Check What are the two key aspects of cyberspace? The Internet and the World Wide Web
51Concept CheckWhat are the five sizes of computers from largest to smallest?Supercomputer, mainframe, workstation, microcomputer, microcontroller
52Concept Check What is a LAN? A local area network is a connected group of desktop PCs and other devices such as printers, normally located in an office or building.
53Concept CheckWhich size of computer is also called an “embedded computer?”Microcontroller
54Concept CheckWhat is the term for a computer used to hold collections of data and programs for connecting PCs, workstations, and other devices?Server
55Concept CheckWhat are the five basic operations that computers have in common?Input, processing, storage, output, and communications
56Concept CheckWhich type of storage is composed of computer circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed?Primary storage (memory)
57Concept CheckWhat computer device consists of electronic circuitry that executes instructions to process data?CPU (Central Processing Unit)
58Concept Check Are RAM chips used for primary or secondary storage? Primary - they’re also called memory chips.
59Concept CheckWhat is the name of the main circuit board in the computer, to which everything else is attached via connections called ports?Motherboard
60Concept CheckHow many characters can be represented by a byte? A kilobyte?A byte represents a single character; 1, 024 characters make a kilobyte
61Concept CheckWhat is the name for the unit of storage capacity representing one billion characters?One gigabyte
62Concept CheckWhat is the name for any component or piece of equipment that expands a computer’s input, storage, and/or output capabilities? A zip-disk drive is an example of this type of component.Peripheral device
63Concept CheckWhat type of software includes the operating system and the master control program that runs the computer?System software