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Introduction to Information Technology 1 Is this really all that important to know ? Server Program Client Network CPU Operating System bit, byte, kilobyte,

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Information Technology 1 Is this really all that important to know ? Server Program Client Network CPU Operating System bit, byte, kilobyte,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Information Technology 1 Is this really all that important to know ? Server Program Client Network CPU Operating System bit, byte, kilobyte, megabyte … Memory Storage Expansion Slots MHz Application Software Upload FTP IT Network Drive World Wide Web Internet etc.

2 Introduction to Information Technology 2 Will there be computers in your place of work?

3 Introduction to Information Technology 3 Will you have to communicate with those you work with?

4 Introduction to Information Technology 4 Becoming Computer Savvy Understand general computer terms. Have a better sense of computers when buying. Know how to fix ordinary problems Efficiently use the Internet Know how to learn new and different programs

5 Using Information Technology Chapter 1 Introduction to Information Technology Your Digital World

6 Introduction to Information Technology 6 What is a computer? A programmable machine A machine that accepts input (raw data), processes that input, and produces output (information).

7 Introduction to Information Technology 7 What is a network? Two or more computers connected together using communications equipment.

8 Introduction to Information Technology 8 Then along came … Being “online” – using a computer to access information from another computer through the use of a network. The Internet World Wide Web E-mail Information technology (“infotech”):  IT - Technology that helps in the production, processing, storing, communication and dissemination of information. The E-World (E-business, E-commerce, E-government, E-learning, E-pinions, E-tailing, E-waste)

9 Introduction to Information Technology 9 The Internet, the World Wide Web, & the “Plumbing of Cyberspace” Cyberspace  encompasses the whole wired and wireless world of communications.  Term created by William Gibson – author  Not a commonly used term in the field of Computer Science.  Internet  A global network of networks (tangible)  Do not confuse with WWW.  World Wide Web  Most common use of the Internet  Encompasses information that can be viewed through a web browser (web pages).  Do not confuse with the Internet.

10 Introduction to Information Technology 10 1.2 The “All-Purpose Machine”: The Varieties of Computers 1.Supercomputers 2.Mainframes 3.Workstations 4.Microcomputers 5.Microcontrollers

11 Introduction to Information Technology 11 Supercomputers Fastest computer Can cost one million to 350 million dollars looks like rows of refrigerator- size boxes Consists of thousands of processors and can carry out several trillion calculations per second. Used for computer simulations  tracking hurricanes, biological contamination, or understanding ocean currents.

12 Introduction to Information Technology 12 Mainframes Small mainframes (mid- size computers or minicomputers). 5,000 to 5 million dollars Used in large organizations – banks, airlines, insurance companies, colleges. Processes billions of instructions per second. Often used with a terminal.

13 Introduction to Information Technology 13 Workstations usually used for complex scientific, mathematical, and engineering calculations and for computer-aided design Example: designing airplanes, special effects in movies

14 Introduction to Information Technology 14 Microcomputer $500 - $5000 Personal Computer (PC)  Tower PC  Desktop PC  Laptop / Notebook  Personal digital assistants (PDAs), also called handheld computers or palmtops Mac  While a Mac is a PC, most people relate the term, PC, with systems that run the Windows operating system.

15 Introduction to Information Technology 15 Other types of microcomputers. Laptop computer Personal Digital Assistant

16 Introduction to Information Technology 16 Microcontrollers tiny, specialized microprocessors installed in “smart” appliances and automobiles also called embedded computers

17 Introduction to Information Technology 17 Servers The word “server” refers to how a computer is used. Server - a central computer that holds collections of data & programs for clients Clients - PCs, workstations, & other devices attached to a server Server + Clients linked together form a client/server network

18 Introduction to Information Technology 18 How Computers Work The purpose of a computer is to process data into information. Data (Input)  The raw facts and figures that are processed into information Information (Output)  Data that has been summarized or otherwise manipulated for use in decision making

19 Introduction to Information Technology 19 Computers consist of hardware and software. Hardware  All the machinery and equipment in a computer system  Tangible Software  All the instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task  Intangible

20 Introduction to Information Technology 20 All computers follow the same five basic operations. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Storage 4. Output 5. Communications

21 Introduction to Information Technology 21 Input Keyboard Mouse

22 Introduction to Information Technology 22 Processing - Manipulating data into information Case or system cabinet  the box that houses the processor chip (CPU – Central Processing Unit) memory chips (RAM) motherboard with power supply secondary storage devices video card Etc. …..

23 Introduction to Information Technology 23 Motherboard Motherboard - the main circuit board in the computer. Everything else attaches to the motherboard through connections called ports. Expansion slots - “plugs” on the motherboard for expanding the PC’s capabilities via additional circuit boards.

24 Introduction to Information Technology 24 Processing Processor chip A tiny piece of silicon that contains millions of miniature electronic circuits. FrontBack

25 Introduction to Information Technology 25 Storage Primary storage  Computer circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed and after it has been processed  Also called: Memory or primary memory RAM – Random Access Memory Temporary storage

26 Introduction to Information Technology 26 RAM Memory chips

27 Introduction to Information Technology 27 Secondary storage  The area in the computer where data or information is held permanently  Also simply called: Storage

28 Introduction to Information Technology 28 Storage capacity is measured in: 1 byte - 1 character is represented using 1 byte. = 8 bits (a bit is a 0 or a 1) 1 kilobyte - 1,024 characters. = 2 10 bytes (approx. 10 3 bytes) 1 megabyte - 1,048,576 characters. = 2 20 bytes (approx. 10 6 bytes) 1 gigabyte - more than 1 billion characters. = 2 30 bytes (approx. 10 9 bytes) 1 terabyte - more than 1 trillion characters. = 2 40 bytes (approx. 10 12 bytes)

29 Introduction to Information Technology 29 Storage Zip disk Floppy disk

30 Introduction to Information Technology 30 Storage Hard-disk drive

31 Introduction to Information Technology 31 Storage CD drive

32 Introduction to Information Technology 32 Storage Flash Memory Sticks

33 Introduction to Information Technology 33 Output Speakers

34 Introduction to Information Technology 34 Speaker output requires a sound card. Sound card

35 Introduction to Information Technology 35 Output Monitor

36 Introduction to Information Technology 36 A video card controls the video display of your monitor.

37 Introduction to Information Technology 37 Output Printer

38 Introduction to Information Technology 38 Communications

39 Introduction to Information Technology 39 Put all the hardware together and…

40 Introduction to Information Technology 40 You still need the software! System software Helps the computer perform essential operating tasks and enables the application software to run

41 Introduction to Information Technology 41 You still need the software! Application software Enables you to perform specific tasks--solve problems, perform work, or entertain yourself

42 Introduction to Information Technology 42 The slides that follow will not be covered in class.

43 Introduction to Information Technology 43 1.4 Where Is Information Technology Headed? Three Directions of Computer Development Miniaturization Speed Affordability Then (1946)Now

44 Introduction to Information Technology 44 Three Directions of Communications Development Connectivity Interactivity Multimedia

45 Introduction to Information Technology 45 When Computers & Communications Combine: Convergence, Portability, & Personalization Convergence Portability Personalization

46 Introduction to Information Technology 46 “E” Also Stands for Ethics Speed and scale Unpredictability Complexity

47 Introduction to Information Technology 47 Onward: Handling Information in the Era of Pervasive Computing Learn to deal with information overload Have a strategy to memorize information: reduce dependence on technology Learn how to make your “multitasking” efficient

48 Introduction to Information Technology 48 Onward: Handling Information in the Era of Pervasive Computing Be aware that “smart mobs” could also be dumb mobs: Know when technology is being used against you.

49 Introduction to Information Technology 49 Concept Check What are the two key components of information technology? Computers and communications

50 Introduction to Information Technology 50 Concept Check What are the two key aspects of cyberspace? The Internet and the World Wide Web

51 Introduction to Information Technology 51 Concept Check What are the five sizes of computers from largest to smallest? Supercomputer, mainframe, workstation, microcomputer, microcontroller

52 Introduction to Information Technology 52 Concept Check What is a LAN? A local area network is a connected group of desktop PCs and other devices such as printers, normally located in an office or building.

53 Introduction to Information Technology 53 Concept Check Which size of computer is also called an “embedded computer?” Microcontroller

54 Introduction to Information Technology 54 Concept Check What is the term for a computer used to hold collections of data and programs for connecting PCs, workstations, and other devices? Server

55 Introduction to Information Technology 55 Concept Check What are the five basic operations that computers have in common? Input, processing, storage, output, and communications

56 Introduction to Information Technology 56 Concept Check Which type of storage is composed of computer circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed? Primary storage (memory)

57 Introduction to Information Technology 57 Concept Check What computer device consists of electronic circuitry that executes instructions to process data? CPU (Central Processing Unit)

58 Introduction to Information Technology 58 Concept Check Are RAM chips used for primary or secondary storage? Primary - they’re also called memory chips.

59 Introduction to Information Technology 59 Concept Check What is the name of the main circuit board in the computer, to which everything else is attached via connections called ports? Motherboard

60 Introduction to Information Technology 60 Concept Check How many characters can be represented by a byte? A kilobyte? A byte represents a single character; 1, 024 characters make a kilobyte

61 Introduction to Information Technology 61 Concept Check What is the name for the unit of storage capacity representing one billion characters? One gigabyte

62 Introduction to Information Technology 62 Concept Check What is the name for any component or piece of equipment that expands a computer’s input, storage, and/or output capabilities? A zip-disk drive is an example of this type of component. Peripheral device

63 Introduction to Information Technology 63 Concept Check What type of software includes the operating system and the master control program that runs the computer? System software


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