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C OMPUTING E SSENTIALS 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 Timothy J. O’Leary Linda I. O’Leary Presentations by: Fred Bounds.

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Presentation on theme: "C OMPUTING E SSENTIALS 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 Timothy J. O’Leary Linda I. O’Leary Presentations by: Fred Bounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 C OMPUTING E SSENTIALS Timothy J. O’Leary Linda I. O’Leary Presentations by: Fred Bounds

2 1 1 Your Future and Computer Competency CHAPTER

3 3 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Competencies After reading this chapter, you should be able to : 1. Explain computer competency. 2. Distinguish four types of computers: microcomputer, minicomputer, mainframe and supercomputer.

4 4 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Competencies 3. Explain the five parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware and data. 4. Distinguish application software from system software. 5. Describe hardware devices for input, processing, storage, output and communications.

5 5 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Competencies 6. Describe document, worksheet and database files. 7. Explain computer connectivity, the Internet and the Web

6 6 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Overview Ten years ago, few people were involved with computers. Microcomputers are common tools today. New forms of learning and communicating are developing. How can microcomputers enhance your life?

7 End Users and Computer Competency By gaining computer competency, end users can use microcomputers to improve their productivity and their value in the workplace.

8 8 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 End Users and Computer Competency Using packaged programs to meet unique information needs –Packaged programs are off-the- shelf, ready to use –Needs that are information-related or decision-making related

9 9 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 End Users and Computer Competency Using packaged programs to meet unique information needs

10 Four Kinds of Computers Computers are of four types: microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes and supercomputers.

11 11 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Four Kinds of Computers Computers are electronic devices that can follow instructions to accept input, process the input and then produce information.

12 12 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Four Kinds of Computers Microcomputers

13 13 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Four Kinds of Computers Microcomputers Minicomputers

14 14 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Four Kinds of Computers Microcomputers Minicomputers Mainframes

15 15 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Four Kinds of Computers Microcomputers Minicomputers Mainframes Supercomputers

16 16 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Microcomputer This most widely used computer generally employs a microprocessor, “computer on a chip” and are desktop sized or less Two main types –Desktop (PC’s & workstations) –Portable (notebooks, subnotebooks, palmtops)

17 17 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Desktop Computers Small enough for a desktop, but not easily portable Personal computers (PC’s) run general purpose software and are employed by a wide spectrum of users

18 18 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Desktop Computers Workstations are powerful machines, running more advanced software, for technical, scientific, or data- intensive tasks These distinctions, however, are blurring

19 19 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Portable Computers Easily transported from one place to another

20 20 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Four categories –Laptops –Notebooks –Subnotebooks –Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) Portable Computers

21 21 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Minicomputers Desk-sized More processing speed and storage capacity than microcomputers General data processing needs at small companies Larger companies use them for specific purposes

22 22 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Mainframe Computers Larger machines with special wiring and environmental controls Faster processing and greater storage than minicomputers Typical machine in large organizations

23 23 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Supercomputers The most powerful of the four categories Used by very large organizations, particularly for very math-intensive types of tasks

24 The Five Parts of an Information System An information system has five parts: people, procedures, software, hardware and data.

25 25 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 The Five Parts of an Information System People

26 26 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 The Five Parts of an Information System People Procedures

27 27 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 The Five Parts of an Information System People Procedures Software

28 28 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 The Five Parts of an Information System People Procedures Software Hardware

29 29 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 The Five Parts of an Information System People Procedures Software Hardware Data

30 Software Software is of two kinds: system software and application software.

31 31 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Software Another name for programs Instructions telling the computer how to process data Two major kinds –System software –Application software

32 32 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 System Software Enables application software to interact with the hardware “Background” software to manage internal computer resources Operating system software the most important type

33 33 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Systems Software Windows 98 Desktop

34 34 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Application Software Think of “end-user” software Two major categories –Packaged - “off the shelf”, pre-written programs –Custom - written for an organization’s specific purpose

35 35 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Application Software Netscape Communicator browser

36 36 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Software

37 37 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Software End User An end user is anyone who uses a microcomputer or has access to larger computers - that’s nearly everyone in today’s workforce. They enter commands and typically interact with application programs. End User An end user is anyone who uses a microcomputer or has access to larger computers - that’s nearly everyone in today’s workforce. They enter commands and typically interact with application programs.

38 38 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Software Application Software Programs to create, organize, analyze, present and communicate information. For example, Excel is a spreadsheet application program that is used to analyze data. Application Software Programs to create, organize, analyze, present and communicate information. For example, Excel is a spreadsheet application program that is used to analyze data.

39 39 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Software System Software “Background” programs that coordinate the application software requests with computer hardware. Windows 95 is a widely-used system program. System Software “Background” programs that coordinate the application software requests with computer hardware. Windows 95 is a widely-used system program.

40 40 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Software Computer Hardware Devices that accept input, process data, store information, produce output and send communications. For example, a disk drive, keyboard, printer and modem are different types of computer hardware. Computer Hardware Devices that accept input, process data, store information, produce output and send communications. For example, a disk drive, keyboard, printer and modem are different types of computer hardware.

41 Hardware Microcomputer hardware consists of devices for input, processing, storage, output and communications.

42 42 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Hardware Physical equipment Five categories –Input devices –System unit –Secondary storage –Output devices –Communications devices

43 43 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Input Devices Translate data and programs that humans understand to a form comprehensible to the computer Most common types –Keyboard –Mouse

44 44 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 The System Unit Container holding primary electronic circuitry Most important components – Central processing unit (CPU) –Memory, also known as primary storage or random access memory (RAM)

45 45 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Secondary Storage For permanent storage of data and programs Often included within the system unit –Floppy disks - 3 1/2 inch, hold approx pages –Hard disks - for storing large amounts –Optical disks - storage using laser technology

46 46 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Secondary Storage For permanent storage of data and programs Often included within the system unit –Floppy disks - 3 1/2 inch, hold approx pages –Hard disks - for storing large amounts –Optical disks - storage using laser technology

47 47 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Output Devices Equipment that translate data from the CPU to a form humans can understand Most common forms –Monitors –Printers

48 48 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Output Devices

49 49 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Communication Devices Hardware that sends data and programs from one computer to another Most common example in the microcomputer world - the modem

50 Data Data is contained in files for documents, worksheets and databases.

51 51 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Data Used to describe facts about something Contained in files for documents, worksheets and databases –Document files - usually created by word processors –Worksheet files - electronic spreadsheets –Database files - electronic database management programs

52 Connectivity and the Internet Connectivity is the microcomputer’s ability to communicate with other computers and information sources. The Internet is the largest network in the world.

53 53 Computing Essentials Chapter 1 Connectivity and the Internet The World Wide Web is the multimedia component of the Internet.

54 54 Computing Essentials Chapter 1


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