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Outsourcing IT: Global Opportunities and Challenges

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1 Outsourcing IT: Global Opportunities and Challenges
Venu Nair, PMP

2 Outsourcing Defined.. Outsourcing: Classic Make vs. Buy Decision
Farming out of services to a third party. With regards to IT, outsourcing can include anything from outsourcing all management of IT to an IBM or EDS or outsourcing a very small and easily defined service, such as disaster recovery or data storage, and everything in between. Often used interchangeably—and incorrectly—with offshoring – it’s a subset Classic Make vs. Buy Decision Globalization - “The World Is Flat” best seller by Thomas Freedman

3 Offshore Outsourcing Offshore outsourcing of software development has become a common practice in recent years. Most of the Fortune 500 companies have or started to outsource software development, maintenance or support to software companies in India. India has the majority in organizations worldwide that have achieved Level 5, the highest in SW-CMM ratings

4 What is a make or buy decision?
Sometimes it makes more sense to buy services rather than perform the task in-house The argument for outsourcing Proficiency Complexity The argument against outsourcing Control Flexibility The verdict Either can make operational and financial sense Arguments for, can become arguments against

5 Deciding whether to make or buy
What do you want to accomplish? How is it done now? What can you do? Make Buy

6 Set objectives What? Why? When? Improve quality Reduce time Cut costs
Rationale Importance When? Timeframe

7 Needs assessment Identify your needs Classify your needs
The more crucial the task, the more details need to be specified Workflow and outputs Policies Steps Time increments Staff and system capabilities Classify your needs Long-term, medium-term, immediate Low, medium, and high priority

8 Review options In-house Outsourcing Core competencies
Competing priorities Career path Skills to task Supervision Corporate culture Outsourcing Availability of options Competitor offerings Appropriateness (esp, offshoring) Gains from technology Interface issues

9 Outsourcing Advantages
Financial Avoid heavy capital investment, thus releasing funds for other uses. Improve cash flow and cost accountability. Technical Be freer to choose software due to a wider range of hardware. Achieve technological improvements more easily. Management Concentrate on developing and running core business activity. Delegate IT development (design, production, and acquisition) and operational responsibility to supplier.

10 Outsourcing Advantages (cont.)
Human Resources Draw on specialist skills, available from a pool of expertise. Enrich career development and opportunities for staff. Quality Clearly define service levels. Improve performance accountability. Flexibility Respond quickly to business demands. Handle IT peaks and valleys more effectively.

11 Outsourcing Strategies (Clemons, 2000)
Understand the project. Clients must have a high degree of understanding of the project, including its requirements, the method of its implementation, and the source of expected economic benefits. Divide and conquer. Dividing a large project into smaller and more manageable pieces will greatly reduce programmatic risk and provides clients with an exit strategy if any part of the project fails. Align incentives. Designing contractual incentives based on activities that can be measured accurately can result in achieving desired performance.

12 Outsourcing Risks (Clemons, 2000)
Shirking occurs when a vendor deliberately underperforms while claiming full payment. e.g., billing for more hours than worked, providing excellent staff first and later replacing them with less qualified ones. Poaching occurs when a vendor develops a strategy and strategic application for a client and then uses them for other clients. e.g., vendor redevelops similar systems for other clients at much lower cost, or vendor goes into client’s business. Opportunistic repricing or holdup occurs when a client enters into a long-term contract with a vendor and vendor changes financial terms at some point or overcharges for unanticipated enhancements and contract extensions.

13 If You Decide to Outsource
Make sure the supplier you choose Understands your market and your industry Is a leader in the field Has a proven track record Take your time and make sure you create a very thorough RFP Be realistic about how things will go during for the first 6-12 months

14 Lessons Learned Manage the relationship and be hands-on for at least the first year Clarify with expected outcomes, results, timetables and budgets Schedule regular progress reviews Evaluate regularly Be open and candid Allow mistakes and learn from them

15 Lessons Learned Consider them an extension of your staff, your partner
Treat them with respect Don’t assume that your way is the best or only way Be proactive at resolving disputes quickly Measure regularly in face-to-face meeting (monthly is preferred) Communicate both the positives and the challenges to your provider and to your internal executive staff

16 IT Failures The following definitions indicate the range of possibilities for the various types of IT failures: Outright failure. The system is never completed, and little or nothing is salvaged from the project. Abandoned. The system is completed, including some or all of the originally specified features, but either it is never used or usage stops after a short period. Scaled down. The system is completed and used, but lacks much of the functionality of the original specifications. Runaway. The project requires much more money and time than planned, regardless of whether it is ever completed or used.

17 Cultural Aspects India

18 Protocol and Communication
The Indian manner is polite and respectful, especially when dealing with senior managers or government officials. Respect for the hierarchy and those senior in age or status is ingrained in the culture and affects business interactions. For example, in meetings, junior managers may not speak or disagree publicly Punctuality may vary. It's best to reconfirm appointments. The pace of business varies, depending on the region/city and type of business. In private industries, it's more competitive, especially in newer high-tech industries and financial services. It may be a good idea to build more time into schedules and deadlines. One of the lasting contributions of the British Raj is the wide use of English in business and government. However, accents, style, usage of words differ in different regions. Indians mix English with their local language. Some Indians' style may be more indirect than direct, in which case you will need to listen carefully. If someone is very direct or assertive, he or she will be known for this style.

19 Supervising and Socializing
Priorities may differ. Sometimes family matters take precedence over business. Some Indians may not sense the same kind of urgency, or they may respond, "no problem," which should not be taken literally. A person may be conveying what he or she hopes to do, rather than disappoint the other by saying no. There is a middle-class of highly trained technocrats who have been to the best schools, are up on the latest management techniques and business jargon, and are fully conversant with Western ways of doing business. Treat them as colleagues rather than uninformed "developing country" managers. If there is an opportunity to meet your colleagues socially, it's a good idea to attend. Relationships are important in India, and will facilitate your interactions. When socializing, just be aware of some personal preferences surrounding food and alcohol. Hindus avoid beef and many are vegetarian. Muslims do not eat pork. Many conservative Indians of all religious backgrounds avoid alcohol.

20 Cultural Tips Indians often respond positively to a question by shaking their head in a way that Westerners interpret as 'no‘ The word “no” has harsh implications in India, non-committal answers are considered more polite. For example, if you have to decline an invitation, it's more acceptable to give a vague and noncommittal answer such as “I'll try” or “We'll see” rather than “No, I can't.” The hierarchical nature of Indian society demands that the boss is recognized as the highest individual in authority. In some offices, employees may rise each time the boss enters the room to acknowledge respect. Employees do as they're told; even if they know the boss is wrong, they won't argue Talking about your friends and family is an important part of establishing a relationship with those involved in the negotiating process.

21 Cultural Tips - Continued
Eating meals with hands is very common India and that is one of the reasons that finger bowls are provided in many elite restaurants Indian culture is what Samuel Huntington of Harvard describes as a “strong” culture, meaning, in part, that Indian culture is able to withstand an influx of outside cultural ideas and products without losing its own internal identities. Whereas Western management techniques and business practices were quickly integrated into traditional lifestyles in the growing Indian software industry, most Indians continue to eat indigenous foods, watch local movies and TV, and to wear traditional clothing. Western companies in the vast Indian consumer market, therefore, have successfully “Inidanized” their products to appeal to the large middle class.

22 Summary It’s not painless, but it’s worth it, if you execute it well.
Good Luck and Thank You!

23 Reference – Various articles on Outsourcing
Outsourcing Lessons Learned – SAE Corporation Economist – London – Summer 2001 Outsourcing and Offshoring – Kaufmann-Willis Group

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