4Transition signals are connecting words or phrases that act like bridges between parts of your writing.Transition signals act like signposts to indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and ideas.They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing. Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas.They help carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or from one idea to another.
61. Sentence Connectors (transition phrases & conjunctive adverbs) Appear in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence.A coma is needed.Example:For example, the Baltic Sea (, for example) in Northern Europe is only one-fourth as saline as the Rea Sea in the Middle East (, for example).
7Conjunction Adverbs:Often used with a semicolon and a comma to join two independent clauses.Examples:In warm climate zones, water evaporates rapidly; therefore, its net profit declined.Some English words do not have exact equivalents in other languages; for example, there is no German word for the adjective fair, as in fair play.
82. Clause Connectors Coordinating conjunctions 對等連接: Used with a comma to join two independent clauses and to form a compound sentence.Examples:In a matriarchy, the mother is the head of the family, and all of the children belong to her clan.In warm climate zones, water evaporates, so the concentration of salt is greater.
9Yet and But: Yet and But an opposite idea is coming. Yet: preferred when the 2nd clause is an unexpected or surprising contrast to the 1st clause.But: preferred when the 2 clauses are direct oppositions.Yet is similar in meaning to “nevertheless”.But is similar to “however”.Examples:Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age 12, yet he became a famous inventor.I want to study art, but my parents want me to become an engineer.
10Subordinating conjunctions 從屬連接 Used to introduce a dependent clause, which is joined to form a complex sentence.Position: use a comma if the DC comes before the IC; do not use a comma if the DC comes after the IC.Examples:Although the company’s sale increased last year, its net profit declined.The company’s net profit declined last year although its sales increased.
113. Others Indicating transition: additional (adj.); despite (prep.); examples (n.).Examples:An additional reason for the firm’s bankruptcy was the lack of competent management.Examples of vocabulary differences between British and American English include petrol/gasoline, windscreen/windshield, and lorry/truck.Despite increased sales, the company’s profit declined last quarter.
13To introduce an opposite idea, and to contrast things Meaning / functionSentence connectorsClause connectorsOthers(adj, verb, prep)CoordinatorsSubordinatorsTo introduce a similar additional ideaalsobesidesfurthermorein additionmoreovertooandnor (and not)anotheran additionalTo compare thingslikewisesimilarlyboth…andnot only…but alsoneither…norasjust asas…aslike/alikejust likesimilar tobe alikebe similarTo introduce an opposite idea, and to contrast thingshoweverin contrastinsteadin/by comparisonneverthelesson the other handon the contrarystillbutyetalthougheven thoughthoughwhereaswhiledespitein spite ofcompared to/withbe different (from)be dissimilarbe unlikediffer (from)
14to introduce an alternative Meaning / functionSentence connectorsClause connectorsOthers(adj, verb, prep)CoordinatorsSubordinatorsTo introduce an exampleFor exampleFor instanceIn this casesuch aslikean example ofto demonstratetake the case ofTo emphasizeIn factTo explain and restateIndeed (really, certainly)That isto introduce an alternativeotherwiseorIfunless
15Meaning / function Sentence connectors Clause connectors Others (adj, verb, prep)CoordinatorsSubordinatorsTo indicate timethereafterthensoonat that timeat this pointImmediatelybefore, afterduringprior toformerlyfinallyPreviouslyTo signal chronological orderfirst, second, then, next…first of all, now, soonlast, finallymeanwhilegraduallyafter thatsince thenafterasas soon asbeforesinceuntilwhenwhilethe first, the secondthe next, the last, the finalbefore lunchafter the warsince 1990in the year 2008(any time expression)
16Meaning / function Sentence connectors Clause connectors Others (adj, verb, prep)CoordinatorsSubordinatorsTo indicate order of importantabove allfirst and foremostmore/most importantly/ significantlyprimarilya more importantthe most importantthe second most significantthe primaryTo introduce a cause or reasonconsequentlythereforefor this purposeforbecausesinceasresult frombe the result ofdue tobecause ofthe effect ofthe consequence ofas a result ofas a consequence of
17Meaning / function Sentence connectors Clause connectors Others (adj, verb, prep)CoordinatorsSubordinatorsTo introduce an effect or resultAccordinglyAs a resultAs a consequenceConsequentlyHence, thusThereforesoresult incausehave an effect onaffectthe cause ofthe reason forTo concludeAll in allIn briefIn conclusionIn shortIn summaryIn deedaccordinglyIt is clear that…We can see that…The evidence suggests that…These examples show that…
19Paragraph Coherence Coherence: how sentences hold together. A coherent paragraph does more than simply lay down the facts -- it organizes them, creating a logical argument that makes sense from idea to idea.Coherent paragraphs have a beginning, a middle, and an end.
20Four ways to achieve coherence: 1. Repeating key nouns / key words 2. Using linking pronouns 3. Using transition signals 4. Applying logical order
21ExampleLimited investment in the housing sector makes it practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. A high rate of urban population growth has increased the country's needs for housing. A small group of city officials has laid out a new plan to combat the crisis. A solution to the housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue here. The housing problem has grown in the last twenty years.Limited investment in the housing sector makes it practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. In fact, the problem has grown in the last twenty years. Because a high rate of urban population growth has increased the country's needs for housing, a solution to the housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue here. A small group of city officials has laid out a new plan to combat the crisis.weakimprovedAlthough related by topic (housing shortage), each sentence makes its own separate point with no link to the sentences before or after. The result is a group of related yet separate ideas instead of one coherent paragraph.Each separate fact now flows into the next, creating a coherent whole.
23Repetition of key nouns (how many key nouns, pronouns are used?)
24Use of consistent pronouns: Avoid change of person or change of number Use of consistent pronouns: Avoid change of person or change of number. (why is it inconsistent?)
25Transition signals Which paragraph is easier to understand?
26ClarityMake sure every pronoun has a clear antecedent.
27Examples: Norden picked up the wrench, removed the nut, and handed it to Robert.Complaining angrily, John wrote it up and sent it to thenewspaper. (what is it?)Norden picked up the wrench, removed the nut,and handed the tool to Robert.Angrily, John wrote up his complaint and sent it to thenewspaper.
28Avoid the use of the indefinite it and they. In the college handbook, it lists the holidays we get in thewinter quarter.At DuPont, they provide very reasonable health insurance.The college handbook lists the holidays we get in the winterquarter.DuPont provides very reasonable health insurance.
29Eliminate the vague it, they, is when, and is where. 1. In Oregon, they have passed a law which encourages the recycling of waste materials.2. In the instruction manual, it explains how to operate an chewing machine.3. Inflation is when the dollar is worth less than previously.4. At the Farmers’ Auction Block is where they have many buyers of truck crops.Oregon has passed a law which …The instruction manual explains how to operate…Inflation occurs when the dollar is ....Many buyers of truck crops are at the Farmers’ Action Block.
30practice1. I went with Brad to Phil’s place because he wanted company.2. Peter spoke to the assistant, and he was very rude.3. The division manger always favored Sam. Thisangered the other employees.4. John showed the news reporter how to take goodpictures, and his pictures turned out beautifully.Because Brad wanted company, I went with him to Phil’s place.Peter spoke very rudely to the assistant.This action angered…the reporter’s pictures
315. Gail hired the waitress, which was a wise move on her part. 6. After the electrician installed new switches in the motors, some of them did not work.7. Plant three-food azalea in front of the seven-food rhododendrons to make them stand out.8. As the ferry boat approaches the tugboat, it blows a warning.Gail’s hiring of the waitress was a wise move on her part. Gail hired the waitress. This move was wise on her part.some of the switches did not work.the rhododendrons (or the azaleas) stand out.The ferry boat blows a warning as it approaches the tugboat.
33A single adjective made up of two or more words is called a "compound adjective". The words in a compound adjective are linked together by a hyphen (or hyphens) to show that they are part of the same adjective.A compound adjective is a modifier of a noun. Compound adjectives do not always have hyphens. They are hyphenated to avoid confusion.
34Types of hyphenated compound adjectives 1. Adjective + Noun (including comparatives and superlatives)2. Numeric+ Noun (Singular)3. Noun + Noun(Adjectival phrases are often hyphenated to avoid confusion with nouns.)A red-light district. A full-time employee. A high-level requirement. A large-scale development. A shorter-term solutionA seven-year itch. A ten-storey building. A five-minute walkA parent-teacher conference. Some food-web dependencies. A crude-oil processing. An ice-cream shop
35B、形容詞為主的複合形容詞: 1. Adjective + Adjective 2. Noun + Adjective A dark-green dress. A bitter-sweet memory.A water-proof jacket. A nation-wide campaign. A duty-free shop. A world-famous player.
371. Adjective + Participle (including comparatives and superlatives) 2. Adverb + ParticipleAn ugly-looking goose = A goose which looks ugly.A snow-covered mountain = A mountain which is covered with snow.An eye-catching girl = A girl who catches people’s eyes.A never-ending story = A story which never ends.A well-paid salary. A well-respected teacher
384. Numeric + Past Participle 3. Noun + Participle4. Numeric + Past Participle5. Past Participle + Adverb6. Past Participle + PrepositionAn adventure-packed quest = A quest which is packed with adventures.A home-made cookie.= The cookie was made at home.A heart-broken story.A fun-loving person.A one-eyed bear. A two-sided storyA laid-off worker = A work who is laid off.A scaled-down operation.An agreed-upon solution.
39We should not place a hyphen in a compound adjective if the adjectives are capitalized, such as when they are partof a title.His book was entitled, "Gender Neutral Language inEnglish Usage," and it revolutionized the way people thinkabout sex roles.However: His book on gender-neutral languagerevolutionized the way people think about sex roles.
40practice 1.This is a dress which was made by hand. 2. It is a walk which takes just 7 minutes.It is just a ___________ walk.3. I like the house which was painted brown.I like the ___________ house.4. Can you see the star which is shining brightly?Can you see the _____________ star.5. This is a cake which is made carefully.This is a ____________ cake.hand-madeseven-minutebrown-paintedbrightly-shiningcarefully-made
41Too Many Passive Sentences Because passive sentence are usually longer and harder to read, using too many can make your writing slow and uninteresting.Active sentences, on the other hand, are generally clearer, more direct, and seem stronger.However, this does not mean you should stop using passive sentences. Use passive sentences only when you want to emphasize something important.
42Suggestions about when to use passive sentences: 1. When the action is more important than the doer:The theater was opened last month.New students are invited to meet the dean in Room 126.2. When the receiver of the action is more important than the doer:Everyone was given a key to the gym.The letters were faxed this morning.
433. When the result of the action is more important than the doer: Our advice was followed by our clients. The new computers were installed by the system staff.4. When you don’t know the doer, don’t care, or don’t want your reader to know:A mistake was made, and all the scholarship application files. This report was written at the last minute.5. When you want to sound objective:The pigeons were observed over a period of three weeks. The subjects were divided into three groups.
45(I). Too many long sentences: The following sentence may be confusing to read becauseof its length:My favorite place to visit is my grandparents’ house near thelake where we love to fish and swim, and we often take the boat out on the lake.(Breaking the sentence into two can make your writing clearer and more interesting.)My favorite place to visit is my grandparents’ house near the lake. We love to fish and swim there, and we often take the boat out on the lake.
46(II). Sentences that are too short: Too many short sentences often makes the writing sound choppy: I knew my friends would throw me a party. It was for my birthday. There was something in the air. I felt it for a whole week before that. I was nervous. I was also very excited. I got home that night. My friends didn’t disappoint me. I walked in my house. All my friends yelled, “surprise!”To improve the above paragraph, you should join some of the short sentences using connectors.
47Because it was my birthday, I knew my friends would through me a party Because it was my birthday, I knew my friends would through me a party. There was something in the air for a whole week before that. I was nervous but excited when I got home that night. I wasn’t disappointed. When I walked in my house, all my friends yelled, “Surprise!”A good style often involves the combination of both short and long sentences.
48Write As Much As Is Appropriate “The professional writer writes in plastic; the amateur writer writes in concrete.” this means that the professional works his sentences over and over, knowing that the first version is seldom the best.
49One of the most common errors is using unnecessary words. What is the obvious problem of the following sentence?“Many uneducated citizens who have never attendedschool continue to vote for better schools.”
50Other examplesEach and every employee will report in writing and completeand turn in form number 402 by August 31 not later.Each employee will complete and turn in form 402 by August 31. (10 words saved)The employers cooperated together and endorsed aconfirmation of the important essentials of the concurringagreement.The employers cooperated and endorsed the essentialsof the agreement.
51Meaningless and Ineffective Usages List of words/phrases that be made simpler:12 midnightmidnight3 am in the morning3 ama person who is honestan honest persona total of 14 birds14 birdscircle aroundcircleclose proximityproximityend resultresultexactly the samethe sameImportant and basicessential
52in spite of the fact that althoughin the field of economicsin economicsshorter/longer in lengthshorter/longersmall/large in sizesmall/largeblue in colorbluesquare/round/rectangular in shapesquare/round/rectangularsummarize brieflysummarizesurrounded on all sidessurroundedsurrounding circumstancescircumstancesthere is no doubt but thatno doubtthe future to comethe future
53and alsoand or alsobasically, essentially, totally(try to avoid these words)Due to the fact thatdue to, becauseeach everyeach or everyequally as(O) equally important(O) as important as(X) equally as importantFirstly, secondly, thirdlyfirst, second, thirdkind of or sort ofsomewhat, rather, slightlylots or lots ofmany or muchplusand or moreover
54a considerable amount of muchThe reason why is becauseThe reason is / becauseon account ofbecausea number ofseveralreferred to ascalledIn a number of casessomehas the capacity tocanIt is clear thatclearlyobviously apparentapparentlyIt is apparent thatemployusefabricatemake
55mix togethermixcombine togethercombineconnect togetherconnectfor the purpose offor….to….noticeable to the eyenoticeableVisible to the eyevisibleAudible to the earaudibleAlone all by himselfaloneduring the winter monthsduring winterIn the month of MayIn MayIn the city of DetroitIn Detroit
56Past experienceexperiencePast historyhistoryIn the final analysisfinallyFinal conclusionconclusionWhole entireentireMight possiblemightHere in this placehereDifferent variationsvariationsIn this day and agetodayRetrieve backretrieveReturn backreturnRepeat againRepeatPrior to the time thatbefore
57practice1. The clerk reviewed the statement for the purpose of checking for errors.2. All the students must know the absolutely basic fundamentals of grammar.3. The politician tried to make his influence felt among the citizens.4. The bank teller asked the customer to endorse the check on the back.5. The governor’s assistant gave a speech on the subject of the resources of Texas.6. The patient was to take his medicine at regular intervals of time.checkingfundamentalsinfluenceendorse the checka speech onregularly
58Only →注意這個字在句子中的位置。當你要表達"He kicked that ball only ten yards." 的意思時，切勿寫成"He only kicked that ball ten yards."
601. “All things considered”: All things considered, Connecticut's woodlands are in better shape now than ever before. 2. “As a matter of fact”: As a matter of fact, there are more woodlands in Connecticut now than there were in “At the present time”: This is because there are fewer farmers at the present time.Connecticut's woodlands are in better shape now than ever before.There are more woodlands in Connecticut now than there were in 1898.This is because there are fewer farmers now.
614. “Because of the fact that”: Woodlands have grown in area because of the fact that farmers have abandoned their fields.5. “Exists”:The fear that exists among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for.6. “For the most part”:For the most part, people's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts.Woodlands have grown in area because farmers have abandoned their fields.The fear among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for.People's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts.
627. “In my opinion”:In my opinion, this wasteful policy ought to be revoked.8. “In the case of”:In the case of this particular policy, citizens of northeast Connecticut became very upset.9. “In the final analysis”:In the final analysis, the state would have been better off without such a policy.10. “In the process of”:Legislators are already in the process of reviewing the statutes.This wasteful policy ought to be revoked.Citizens of northeast Connecticut became very upset about his policy.The state would have been better off without such a policy.Legislators are already reviewing the statutes.
6311. “It seems that”:It seems that they can't wait to get rid of this one.12. “The point I am trying to make”:The point I am trying to make is that sometimes public policy doesn't accomplish what it set out to achieve.13. “Type of”:Legislators need to be more careful of the type of policy they propose.They can't wait to get rid of this one.Sometimes public policy doesn't accomplish what it set out to achieve.Legislators need to be more careful of the policy they propose.