Presentation on theme: "Transitional words and phrases Paragraph coherence 轉折語氣 段落一致性."— Presentation transcript:
Transitional words and phrases Paragraph coherence 轉折語氣 段落一致性
Contents: Transition signals Paragraph coherence Clarity Compound Adjectives Write as much as is appropriate
Transition signals are connecting words or phrases that act like bridges between parts of your writing. Transition signals act like signposts to indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and ideas. They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing. Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas. They help carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or from one idea to another.
1. Sentence Connectors (transition phrases & conjunctive adverbs) Transition phrases: Appear in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. A coma is needed. Example: For example, the Baltic Sea (, for example) in Northern Europe is only one-fourth as saline as the Rea Sea in the Middle East (, for example).
Conjunction Adverbs: Often used with a semicolon and a comma to join two independent clauses. Examples: In warm climate zones, water evaporates rapidly; therefore, its net profit declined. Some English words do not have exact equivalents in other languages; for example, there is no German word for the adjective fair, as in fair play.
Coordinating conjunctions 對等連接 : Used with a comma to join two independent clauses and to form a compound sentence. 2. Clause Connectors Examples: In a matriarchy, the mother is the head of the family, and all of the children belong to her clan. In warm climate zones, water evaporates, so the concentration of salt is greater.
Yet and But an opposite idea is coming. Yet: preferred when the 2 nd clause is an unexpected or surprising contrast to the 1 st clause. But: preferred when the 2 clauses are direct oppositions. Yet is similar in meaning to “nevertheless”. But is similar to “however”. Yet and But: Examples: Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age 12, yet he became a famous inventor. I want to study art, but my parents want me to become an engineer.
Subordinating conjunctions 從屬連接 Used to introduce a dependent clause, which is joined to form a complex sentence. Position: use a comma if the DC comes before the IC; do not use a comma if the DC comes after the IC. Examples: Although the company’s sale increased last year, its net profit declined. The company’s net profit declined last year although its sales increased.
Indicating transition : additional (adj.); despite (prep.); examples (n.). 3. Others Examples: An additional reason for the firm’s bankruptcy was the lack of competent management. Examples of vocabulary differences between British and American English include petrol/gasoline, windscreen/windshield, and lorry/truck. Despite increased sales, the company’s profit declined last quarter.
Common Transition Signals
Meaning / functionSentence connectors Clause connectorsOthers (adj, verb, prep) CoordinatorsSubordinators To introduce a similar additional idea also besides furthermore in addition moreover too and nor (and not) another an additional To compare things also likewise similarly too and both…and not only…but also neither…nor as just as as…as like/alike just like similar to be alike be similar To introduce an opposite idea, and to contrast things however in contrast instead in/by comparison nevertheless on the other hand on the contrary still but yet although even though though whereas while despite in spite of compared to/with be different (from) be dissimilar be unlike differ (from)
Meaning / function Sentence connectors Clause connectorsOthers (adj, verb, prep) CoordinatorsSubordinators To introduce an example For example For instance In this case such as like an example of to demonstrate take the case of To emphasize In fact To explain and restate Indeed (really, certainly) That is to introduce an alternative otherwiseorIf unless
Meaning / function Sentence connectors Clause connectorsOthers (adj, verb, prep) CoordinatorsSubordinators To indicate time thereafter then soon at that time at this point Immediately before, after during prior to formerly finally Previously To signal chronological order first, second, then, next… first of all, now, soon last, finally meanwhile gradually after that since then after as as soon as before since until when while the first, the second the next, the last, the final before lunch after the war since 1990 in the year 2008 (any time expression)
Meaning / function Sentence connectors Clause connectorsOthers (adj, verb, prep) CoordinatorsSubordinators To indicate order of important above all first and foremost more/most importantly/ significantly primarily a more important the most important the second most significant the primary To introduce a cause or reason consequently therefore for this purpose forbecause since as result from be the result of due to because of the effect of the consequence of as a result of as a consequence of
Meaning / function Sentence connectors Clause connectorsOthers (adj, verb, prep) CoordinatorsSubordinators To introduce an effect or result Accordingly As a result As a consequence Consequently Hence, thus Therefore soresult in cause have an effect on affect the cause of the reason for To concludeAll in all In brief In conclusion In short In summary In deed accordingly It is clear that… We can see that… The evidence suggests that… These examples show that…
Sample text: Sample Text
Paragraph Coherence Coherence: how sentences hold together. A coherent paragraph does more than simply lay down the facts -- it organizes them, creating a logical argument that makes sense from idea to idea. Coherent paragraphs have a beginning, a middle, and an end.
1. Repeating key nouns / key words 2. Using linking pronouns 3. Using transition signals 4. Applying logical order Four ways to achieve coherence:
Example Limited investment in the housing sector makes it practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. A high rate of urban population growth has increased the country's needs for housing. A small group of city officials has laid out a new plan to combat the crisis. A solution to the housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue here. The housing problem has grown in the last twenty years. Limited investment in the housing sector makes it practically impossible to allocate sufficient resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. In fact, the problem has grown in the last twenty years. Because a high rate of urban population growth has increased the country's needs for housing, a solution to the housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue here. A small group of city officials has laid out a new plan to combat the crisis. weak improved Although related by topic (housing shortage), each sentence makes its own separate point with no link to the sentences before or after. The result is a group of related yet separate ideas instead of one coherent paragraph. Each separate fact now flows into the next, creating a coherent whole.
Why is this paragraph less coherent?
(how many key nouns, pronouns are used?) Repetition of key nouns
Use of consistent pronouns: Avoid change of person or change of number. (why is it inconsistent?)
Transition signals Which paragraph is easier to understand?
Clarity Make sure every pronoun has a clear antecedent.
Examples: Norden picked up the wrench, removed the nut, and handed it to Robert. Complaining angrily, John wrote it up and sent it to the newspaper. (what is it?) Norden picked up the wrench, removed the nut, and handed the tool to Robert. Angrily, John wrote up his complaint and sent it to the newspaper.
Avoid the use of the indefinite it and they. In the college handbook, it lists the holidays we get in the winter quarter. At DuPont, they provide very reasonable health insurance. The college handbook lists the holidays we get in the winter quarter. DuPont provides very reasonable health insurance.
Eliminate the vague it, they, is when, and is where. 1. In Oregon, they have passed a law which encourages the recycling of waste materials. 2. In the instruction manual, it explains how to operate an chewing machine. 3. Inflation is when the dollar is worth less than previously. 4. At the Farmers’ Auction Block is where they have many buyers of truck crops. Oregon has passed a law which … The instruction manual explains how to operate… Inflation occurs when the dollar is.... Many buyers of truck crops are at the Farmers’ Action Block.
practice 1. I went with Brad to Phil’s place because he wanted company. 2. Peter spoke to the assistant, and he was very rude. 3. The division manger always favored Sam. This angered the other employees. 4. John showed the news reporter how to take good pictures, and his pictures turned out beautifully. Because Brad wanted company, I went with him to Phil’s place. Peter spoke very rudely to the assistant. This action angered… the reporter’s pictures
5. Gail hired the waitress, which was a wise move on her part. 6. After the electrician installed new switches in the motors, some of them did not work. 7. Plant three-food azalea in front of the seven-food rhododendrons to make them stand out. 8. As the ferry boat approaches the tugboat, it blows a warning. Gail’s hiring of the waitress was a wise move on her part. Gail hired the waitress. This move was wise on her part. some of the switches did not work. the rhododendrons (or the azaleas) stand out. The ferry boat blows a warning as it approaches the tugboat.
Compound Adjectives 複合形容詞
A single adjective made up of two or more words is called a "compound adjective". The words in a compound adjective are linked together by a hyphen (or hyphens) to show that they are part of the same adjective. A compound adjective is a modifier of a noun. Compound adjectives do not always have hyphens. They are hyphenated to avoid confusion.
Types of hyphenated compound adjectives A 、名詞為主的複合形容詞 : 1. Adjective + Noun (including comparatives and superlatives) 2. Numeric+ Noun (Singular) 3. Noun + Noun (Adjectival phrases are often hyphenated to avoid confusion with nouns.) A red-light district. A full-time employee. A high-level requirement. A large-scale development. A shorter-term solution A seven-year itch. A ten-storey building. A five-minute walk A parent-teacher conference. Some food-web dependencies. A crude-oil processing. An ice-cream shop
B 、形容詞為主的複合形容詞 : 1. Adjective + Adjective 2. Noun + Adjective A dark-green dress. A bitter-sweet memory. A water-proof jacket. A nation-wide campaign. A duty-free shop. A world-famous player.
C 、分詞為主的複合形容詞 : 主動語態 - 用現在分詞 被動語態 - 用過去分詞 1. Adjective + Participle 2. Adverb + Participle 3. Noun + Participle 4. Numeric + Past Participle 5. Past Participle + Adverb 6. Past Participle + Preposition
1. Adjective + Participle (including comparatives and superlatives) 2. Adverb + Participle An ugly-looking goose = A goose which looks ugly. A snow-covered mountain = A mountain which is covered with snow. An eye-catching girl = A girl who catches people’s eyes. A never-ending story = A story which never ends. A well-paid salary. A well-respected teacher
3. Noun + Participle 4. Numeric + Past Participle 5. Past Participle + Adverb 6. Past Participle + Preposition An adventure-packed quest = A quest which is packed with adventures. A home-made cookie.= The cookie was made at home. A heart-broken story. A fun-loving person. A one-eyed bear. A two-sided story A laid-off worker = A work who is laid off. A scaled-down operation. An agreed-upon solution.
We should not place a hyphen in a compound adjective if the adjectives are capitalized, such as when they are part of a title. His book was entitled, "Gender Neutral Language in English Usage," and it revolutionized the way people think about sex roles. However: His book on gender-neutral language revolutionized the way people think about sex roles.
practice 1.This is a dress which was made by hand. This is a _________ dress. 2. It is a walk which takes just 7 minutes. It is just a ___________ walk. 3. I like the house which was painted brown. I like the ___________ house. 4. Can you see the star which is shining brightly? Can you see the _____________ star. 5. This is a cake which is made carefully. This is a ____________ cake. brown-painted carefully-made seven-minute hand-made brightly-shining
Too Many Passive Sentences Because passive sentence are usually longer and harder to read, using too many can make your writing slow and uninteresting. Active sentences, on the other hand, are generally clearer, more direct, and seem stronger. However, this does not mean you should stop using passive sentences. Use passive sentences only when you want to emphasize something important.
Suggestions about when to use passive sentences: 1. When the action is more important than the doer: The theater was opened last month. New students are invited to meet the dean in Room When the receiver of the action is more important than the doer: Everyone was given a key to the gym. The letters were faxed this morning.
3. When the result of the action is more important than the doer: Our advice was followed by our clients. The new computers were installed by the system staff. 4. When you don’t know the doer, don’t care, or don’t want your reader to know: A mistake was made, and all the scholarship application files. This report was written at the last minute. 5. When you want to sound objective: The pigeons were observed over a period of three weeks. The subjects were divided into three groups.
Sentences that are too long or too short
(I). Too many long sentences: The following sentence may be confusing to read because of its length: (Breaking the sentence into two can make your writing clearer and more interesting.) My favorite place to visit is my grandparents’ house near the lake. We love to fish and swim there, and we often take the boat out on the lake. My favorite place to visit is my grandparents’ house near the lake where we love to fish and swim, and we often take the boat out on the lake.
(II). Sentences that are too short: Too many short sentences often makes the writing sound choppy: I knew my friends would throw me a party. It was for my birthday. There was something in the air. I felt it for a whole week before that. I was nervous. I was also very excited. I got home that night. My friends didn’t disappoint me. I walked in my house. All my friends yelled, “surprise!” To improve the above paragraph, you should join some of the short sentences using connectors.
Because it was my birthday, I knew my friends would through me a party. There was something in the air for a whole week before that. I was nervous but excited when I got home that night. I wasn’t disappointed. When I walked in my house, all my friends yelled, “Surprise!” A good style often involves the combination of both short and long sentences.
Write As Much As Is Appropriate “The professional writer writes in plastic; the amateur writer writes in concrete.” this means that the professional works his sentences over and over, knowing that the first version is seldom the best.
One of the most common errors is using unnecessary words. What is the obvious problem of the following sentence? “Many uneducated citizens who have never attended school continue to vote for better schools.”
Other examples Each and every employee will report in writing and complete and turn in form number 402 by August 31 not later. The employers cooperated together and endorsed a confirmation of the important essentials of the concurring agreement. The employers cooperated and endorsed the essentials of the agreement. Each employee will complete and turn in form 402 by August 31. (10 words saved)
12 midnightmidnight 3 am in the morning3 am a person who is honestan honest person a total of 14 birds14 birds circle aroundcircle close proximityproximity end resultresult exactly the samethe same Important and basicessential List of words/phrases that be made simpler: Meaningless and Ineffective Usages
in spite of the fact thatalthough in the field of economicsin economics shorter/longer in lengthshorter/longer small/large in sizesmall/large blue in colorblue square/round/rectangular in shapesquare/round/rectangular summarize brieflysummarize surrounded on all sidessurrounded surrounding circumstancescircumstances there is no doubt but thatno doubt the future to comethe future
and alsoand or also basically, essentially, totally (try to avoid these words) Due to the fact thatdue to, because each everyeach or every equally as(O) equally important (O) as important as (X) equally as important Firstly, secondly, thirdlyfirst, second, third kind of or sort ofsomewhat, rather, slightly lots or lots ofmany or much plusand or moreover
a considerable amount ofmuch The reason why is becauseThe reason is / because on account ofbecause a number ofseveral referred to ascalled In a number of casessome has the capacity tocan It is clear thatclearly obviously apparentapparently It is apparent thatapparently employuse fabricatemake
mix togethermix combine togethercombine connect togetherconnect for the purpose offor…. to…. noticeable to the eyenoticeable Visible to the eyevisible Audible to the earaudible Alone all by himselfalone during the winter monthsduring winter In the month of MayIn May In the city of DetroitIn Detroit
Past experienceexperience Past historyhistory In the final analysisfinally Final conclusionconclusion Whole entireentire Might possiblemight Here in this placehere Different variationsvariations In this day and agetoday Retrieve backretrieve Return backreturn Repeat againRepeat Prior to the time thatbefore
practice 1. The clerk reviewed the statement for the purpose of checking for errors. 2. All the students must know the absolutely basic fundamentals of grammar. 3. The politician tried to make his influence felt among the citizens. 4. The bank teller asked the customer to endorse the check on the back. 5. The governor’s assistant gave a speech on the subject of the resources of Texas. 6. The patient was to take his medicine at regular intervals of time. influence a speech on fundamentals checking endorse the check regularly
Only → 注意這個字在句子中的位置。 當你要表達 "He kicked that ball only ten yards." 的意思時，切勿寫成 "He only kicked that ball ten yards."
Plague Words and Phrases
1. “All things considered”: All things considered, Connecticut's woodlands are in better shape now than ever before. 2. “As a matter of fact”: As a matter of fact, there are more woodlands in Connecticut now than there were in “At the present time”: This is because there are fewer farmers at the present time. Connecticut's woodlands are in better shape now than ever before. There are more woodlands in Connecticut now than there were in This is because there are fewer farmers now.
4. “Because of the fact that”: Woodlands have grown in area because of the fact that farmers have abandoned their fields. 5. “Exists”: The fear that exists among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for. 6. “For the most part”: For the most part, people's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts. Woodlands have grown in area because farmers have abandoned their fields. The fear among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for. People's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts.
7. “In my opinion”: In my opinion, this wasteful policy ought to be revoked. 8. “In the case of”: In the case of this particular policy, citizens of northeast Connecticut became very upset. 9. “In the final analysis”: In the final analysis, the state would have been better off without such a policy. 10. “In the process of”: Legislators are already in the process of reviewing the statutes. This wasteful policy ought to be revoked. Citizens of northeast Connecticut became very upset about his policy. The state would have been better off without such a policy. Legislators are already reviewing the statutes.
11. “It seems that”: It seems that they can't wait to get rid of this one. 12. “The point I am trying to make”: The point I am trying to make is that sometimes public policy doesn't accomplish what it set out to achieve. 13. “Type of”: Legislators need to be more careful of the type of policy they propose. They can't wait to get rid of this one. Sometimes public policy doesn't accomplish what it set out to achieve. Legislators need to be more careful of the policy they propose.