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Work engagement Prof. dr. Arnold Bakker June 15, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Work engagement Prof. dr. Arnold Bakker June 15, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Work engagement Prof. dr. Arnold Bakker June 15, 2011

2 Positive Context PART 1

3 The study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance improvement in today’s workplace Positive Organizational Behavior Luthans (2003)

4 Schaufeli & Bakker (2003, 2004, 2010) Work Engagement “A positive, affective-motivational state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption.”

5 Utrecht Work Engagement Scale Vigor At my work, I feel bursting with energy At my job, I feel strong and vigorous Dedication To me, my job is challenging I am enthusiastic about my job Absorption When I am working, I forget everything else around me I am completely immersed in my work Schaufeli & Bakker (2003)

6 HIGH ACTIVATION LOW ACTIVATION Pleasant low activation Unpleasant low activation Unpleasant high activation Enthusiastic Excited Happy Energised Agitated Hostile Irritated Angry PLEASANT UNPLEASANT Content Relaxed Calm Tranquil Tense Dejected Lethargic Fatigued Gloomy Sad Pleased ENGAGEMENT Russell & Carroll (1999)

7 HIGH ACTIVATION LOW ACTIVATION Pleasant low activation Unpleasant low activation Unpleasant high activation Enthusiastic Excited Happy Energised Agitated Hostile Irritated Angry PLEASANT UNPLEASANT Content Relaxed Calm Tranquil Tense Dejected Lethargic Fatigued Gloomy Sad Pleased ENGAGEMENT BURNOUT Bakker & Oerlemans (2011)

8 HIGH ACTIVATION LOW ACTIVATION Pleasant low activation Unpleasant low activation Unpleasant high activation Enthusiastic Excited Happy Energised Agitated Hostile Irritated Angry PLEASANT UNPLEASANT Content Relaxed Calm Tranquil Tense Dejected Lethargic Fatigued Gloomy Sad Pleased ENGAGEMENT BURNOUT Bakker & Oerlemans (2011) SATISFACTION WORKAHOLISM

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10 Engaged Employees Take personal initiative Generate their own positive feedback Are also engaged outside their work Are tired in a different way Also want to do other things than working Schaufeli et al. (2001)

11 Predictors PART 2

12 Arnold Bakker Demand-Control model

13 Arnold Bakker Effort-Reward Imbalance Model Siegrist (1996)

14 Arnold Bakker What are your most important Job Demands and Resources? Write down 5 of each EXERCISE

15 Workload Emotional Demands Mental Demands Physical Demands Autonomy Social Support Coaching Feedback Many Demands and Resources Etc.. Etc.

16 JD-R Model of Engagement + + Bakker & Demerouti (2008) Personal Resources Performance Work Engagement Job Resources Job Demands + +

17 Technicians, N= month follow-up Xanthopoulou et al. ( JVB) CAUSAL EFFECTS Work Engagement Job Resources Personal Resources Work Engagement Job Resources Personal Resources Time 1Time 2.33

18 Technicians, N= month follow-up Xanthopoulou et al. ( JVB) REVERSED CAUSAL EFFECTS Work Engagement Job Resources Personal Resources Work Engagement Job Resources Personal Resources Time 1Time 2.30

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20 Dutch Managers, N=201 T1 Engagement T1 Burnout T2 Engagement T2 Burnout Δ Job Demands Δ Job Resources Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30,

21 Finnish Dentists, N=2555 Hakanen, Schaufeli & Ahola (2008) - Job Demands Job Resources Burnout Organizational Commitment Work Engagement -.05 Depressive Symptoms.16 -

22 Belgian employees, N=745 Van den Broeck et al. (2008) Job Resources Job Demands Vigor Exhaustion Need Satisfaction

23 Interactions in JD-R model BURNOUT WORK ENGAGEMENT APATHYBOREDOM LOW HIGH LOW HIGH JOB RESOURCES JOB DEMANDS

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25 Resources work when needed Finnish Dentists, N=1919 Hakanen, J.J., Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2005). How dentists cope with their job demands and stay engaged: The moderating role of job resources. European Journal of Oral Sciences

26 Resources work when needed Finnish Teachers, N=805 Bakker, A.B., Hakanen, J.J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement, particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99,

27 Resources work when needed Dutch Employees, N=12,000 Bakker, A., Van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the demand-control model: Thriving on high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 3-16.

28 Personal Resources “aspects of the self that refer to individuals’ sense of their ability to control and impact upon their environment successfully” (Hobfoll et al., 2003) Self-efficacy Optimism Resilience Self-esteem

29 Personal Resources Personal resources are important because they protect against negative stress, may promote health, and can be used to cope with stressful situations

30 Stress resilience as motivator Financial Firm, N=388

31 Outcomes PART 3

32 What are the consequences of engagement? Discuss with your neighbour EXERCISE

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34 Outcomes of Engagement Better performance Reduced Absence Reduced Personnel Turnover Higher productivity Client satisfaction Engaged Colleagues Demerouti & Cropanzano (2010)

35 Daily Engagement

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37 Trait Support Trait Self-efficacy Trait Work Engagement Xanthopoulou et al. (2008, JOHP) Daily engagement flight attendants Social Support Self- Efficacy Work Engagement Performance

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39 Branch Trait Personal Resources Trait Work Engagement Xanthopoulou et al. (2009, JOOP) Greek fast-food restaurants Job Resources Personal Resources Work Engagement Financial Turnover

40 Branch Trait Personal Resources Trait Work Engagement Xanthopoulou et al. (2009, JOOP) Greek fast-food restaurants Autonomy Coaching Team Climate Self-efficacy Optimism Self-esteem Work Engagement Financial Turnover

41 Is engagement contagious?

42 Women Engagement is contagious

43 Results Trait Extraversion A Daily Engagement B Frequency Daily Communic Daily Engagement A Daily Performance B Trait Extraversion B + Bakker & Xanthopoulou (2009)

44 Interaction Work Engagement B Bakker & Xanthopoulou (2009)

45 Interventions PART 5

46 Job Crafting Employees may actively change the design of their jobs by choosing tasks, negotiating different job content, and assigning meaning to their tasks or jobs Parker & Ohly (2008)

47 Job Crafting Job crafting is defined as the physical and cognitive changes individuals make in their task or relational boundaries Wrzesniewski & Dutton (2001)

48 Job Crafting Job crafting is defined as the changes individuals make in their job demands and job resources Tims & Bakker (in press, South African Journal of Industrial Psychology

49 Job Crafting Increasing Structural JRs Increasing Social JRs Increasing JDs Decreasing JDs

50 Job Crafting Scale Increase Job Resources I ask my supervisor to coach me I ask others for feedback on my job performance Increase Job Demands When an interesting project comes along, I offer myself proactively as project co-worker

51 Job Crafting Decrease Job Demands I organise my work in such a way to make sure that I do not have to concentrate for too long a period at once

52 Job Crafting Scale - Reliabilities N Increasing Structural Job Resources Increasing Social Job Resources Increasing Job Demands Decreasing Job Demands Tims, M., Bakker, A.B. & Derks, D. (2010). Measuring Job Crafting Behavior of Employees: The Development and Validity of the Job Crafting Scale.

53 Job Crafting Scale – Validity Other Ratings Increasing Structural JRs Increasing Social JRs Increasing Job Demands Decreasing Job Demands Job Crafting Employability ++

54 Leaders and Followers, N=95 Bakker, Tims & Derks (2010) Proactive Personality.47 Job crafting In-role Performance.37 Work engagement.68 Increasing JR Increasing JD χ 2 (31) = 36,39, TLI =.99, RMSEA =.04.37

55 Daily variance in crafting Increase Job Resources Between: 57% Within: 43% Increase Job Demands Between: 59% Within: 41% Decrease Job Demands Between: 53% Within: 47% Demerouti (2010)

56 Reduce Demands Active Jobs JD x C Increase Demands Increase Resources Work Engagement Antecedents Job Crafting Outcomes Demerouti (2010)

57 Increase Resources Interaction (1)

58 Demerouti (2010) Decrease Demands Interaction (2)

59 Arnold Bakker More on Interventions

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61 Interventions LevelPrimarySecondary Person in Organisation Optimize individual JDs, JRs, and PRs OrganisationOptimize JDs and JRs at department or team level

62 Work environment Increase job resources Leadership Optimize social climate (crossover) Stimulate transformational leadership Training Increase personal resources Career development Challenging work Organizational strategies Schaufeli & Salanova (2007)

63 Generate positive feedback positive upward spiral Goal setting Use of implementation intentions Job Crafting Change job demands and resources Use strengths in a new way Engagement App Individual strategies

64 JD-R Monitor Participants: Go to secured website Fill in a personal code Read Introduction Fill in Questionnaire Receive individual feedback May print personalized report

65 5/3/2015Free Template from 65

66 5/3/2015Free Template from 66

67 5/3/2015Free Template from 67

68 5/3/2015Free Template from 68

69 Work Engagement Model + + Bakker & Demerouti (2008) Personal Resources Performance Work Engagement Job Resources Job Demands + + Job crafting

70 More info:


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